Microbiology - (Greek μικρός, mikrós, „tiny“, βίος, bíos, „life“ and λόγος, lógos, „science“) is a science in the composition of biology, which is occupied by the study of microorganisms (bacterium, (archaebacteria), microscopic fungi, protozoa,alga,and viruses). Into the field of the interests of microbiology enter their systematics, morphology, physiology, biochemistry, evolution, role in the ecosystems and also the possibility of practical use. Bacteriology is a division of microbiology.
In 1665, Robert Hooke saw that cork was made up of little cubes that he named cells. Later Anton van Leeuwenhoek made the important connection that cells are living things when he saw through his early microscope small one celled organisms. Later Christian Ehrenberg found that protista or bacteria were different kinds of cells. In the late part of the 1800s Martinus Beijerinck showed that there were small particles called viruses. Another important change in the study of microorganisms came from the discovery of DNA and RNA, because now it is possible to change the inside of a cell without killing it using a vector. One of the most recent discoveries that has changed the study of microbiology is the discovery of transposons or jumping genes. Another one is the discovery of animal genes in the cells.