Topography of Sumbawa; Tambora's caldera is situated on the northern peninsula.
|Elevation||2,722 m (8,930 ft)|
|Prominence||2,722 m (8,930 ft)|
|Location||Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia|
|Age of rock||57000 years|
History[change | edit source]
When the volcano erupted in 1815, it climaxed on 10 April. It was the most destructive volcanic eruption in modern history. It has been estimated that it was four times larger than the 1883 eruption of Krakatoa, between Java and Sumatra, in terms of volume of magma ejected. Before the explosion, Tambora was 4,300 m (14,100 ft) high, now it is only 2,722 m (8,930 ft) high. Its massive crater is therefore a caldera.
The eruption destroyed a small Asian culture, known to archaeologists as the Tamboran kingdom. It launched 100 cubic kilometers of ash into the upper atmosphere, which caused 1816 to be the "year without a summer."
Most deaths from the eruption were from starvation and disease, as the fallout ruined farming in the local region. The death toll was at least 71,000 people, of whom 11,000–12,000 were killed directly by the eruption. The often-cited figure of 92,000 people killed is believed to be overestimated.
The estimated total volume of material blown out is 160 km3 (38 cu mi). Tambora's 1815 outburst was the largest volcanic eruption in recorded history. The explosion was heard on Sumatra island more than 2,000 km (1,200 mi) away. Heavy volcanic ash falls were observed as far away as Borneo, Sulawesi, Java and Maluku islands.
The eruption caused a global climate change known as the "volcanic winter". 1816 became known as the "Year without a summer" because of the effect on North American and European weather. Crops failed and livestock died in much of the Northern Hemisphere, resulting in the worst famine of the 19th century.
References[change | edit source]
- "Tambora". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0604-04=.
- "Gunung Tambora". Peakbagger.com. http://www.peakbagger.com/peak.aspx?pid=11008. Retrieved 2009-05-01.
- Stothers, Richard B. (1984). "The great Tambora eruption in 1815 and its aftermath". Science 224 (4654): 1191–1198. doi:10.1126/science.224.4654.1191. PMID 17819476.
- "Mountains of the Indonesian archipelago". Peaklist. Peaklist.org. http://www.peaklist.org/WWlists/ultras/indonesia.html. Retrieved 2009-05-01.
- This may seem a small total, but there were far fewer people living in the region in 1816.
- Oppenheimer, Clive (2003). "Climatic, environmental and human consequences of the largest known historic eruption: Tambora volcano (Indonesia) 1815". Progress in Physical Geography 27 (2): 230–259. doi:10.1191/0309133303pp379ra.
- Tanguy, J.-C.; Scarth A; Ribière C. & Tjetjep W.S. (1998). "Victims from volcanic eruptions: a revised database". Bulletin of Volcanology 60 (2): 137–144. doi:10.1007/s004450050222.