Renal cell carcinoma
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Signs and symptoms[change | change source]
- Flank pain
- Weight loss
- Blood in the urine
- Palpable mass
- Symptoms of metastases in advanced cases
- Paraneoplastic syndromes occur in some patients.
Treatment[change | change source]
In cases of early-stage renal cell carcinoma, removal of the affected kidney is the treatment of choice. In some cases, nephrectomy can be partial rather than complete (some kidney is left behind). However, stage IV cases of renal cell carcinoma are more difficult to treat, with current treatments including Interleukin-2 which induces a response in about 5-10% of cases. Other treatments used include Nexavar, Torisel, Sutent, Interferon, and Bevacizumab. Surgical removal of both the primary tumor and the metastases may be considered in selected cases. Oncophage cancer vaccine may also be effective in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma. Surgery to remove liver metastases in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma involving the liver may be beneficial.
References[change | change source]