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An umbrella term is a phrase that organises a broad number of related concepts that all fall under a single common category. For example, cryptology is an umbrella term that includes cryptography and cryptanalysis, among other fields. Similarly, an umbrella organisation is a main body that can represent a number of smaller, separate bodies.
The similar phrase blanket term is a used to describe multiple groups of related things. How similar these concepts are to each other may change and they may only have a very small relationship with each other. But the main purpose of blanket terms is that they are easy to say and remember, and so these terms may not necessarily be specific. Blanket terms may originate as slang, and eventually become a part of normal speaking.