Vlad III the Impaler
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Vlad III, Prince of Wallachia, more commonly known as Vlad the Impaler (Vlad Ţepeş 'tsepeʃ in Romanian, also known as Vlad Dracula or Vlad Drăculea and Kazıklı Bey in Turkish, born probably in November or December, 1431 – December 1476) was Prince (voievod) of Wallachia. Wallachia used to be a state which is now part of Romania. He ruled three times, in 1448, 1456-1462, and 1476.
In the English-speaking world, Vlad is best known for the legends of the very cruel punishments he gave. These may have given ideas for the vampire main character in Bram Stoker's popular Dracula novel.
As Prince, he was fighting against the Turkish expansion.
Wallachian royalty and family background [change]
The rulers of Wallachia did not give the crown to their sons. The leader was chosen by the Romanian aristocrats, boyars, and had to be at least partly noble. It did not matter if a prince was illegitimate, or born outside of marriage. This method often resulted in instability, family disputes and murders. There was also a struggle between the prince and the high nobility for control over the country. The two powerful neighbors of Wallachia, the Kingdom of Hungary and the Ottoman Empire, (the Turks) were fighting for control of southeastern Europe. This made Wallachia a battle ground.
His father, Vlad II Dracul, born around 1395, was an illegitimate son of Mircea the Elder, an important early Wallachian ruler. As a young man, he had joined the court of Sigismund of Luxemburg, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Hungary, who was supporting Vlad II for the throne of Wallachia. A sign of this support was the fact that in 1431 Vlad II was made knight of the Order of the Dragon (Societas Draconis in Latin). Who Vlad Dracula’s mother was is not known for sure. Most likely she was a niece or daughter of the Moldavian prince Alexandru cel Bun. Vlad III had three brothers. The oldest, probably named Mircea, born before 1430, was at his father's throne in 1442. He was sent by Vlad II to fight in his place during the war against the Turks in 1444. This war at Varna was lost. Mircea and his father died in 1447. Vlad IV, also known as Vlad Călugarul (Vlad the Monk), was born around 1425 to 1430, and was Vlad's half-brother. Vlad the Monk spent many years in Transylvania waiting for a chance to get the throne of Wallachia. Vlad the Monk was a monk until he became prince of Wallachia in 1482. Radu, known as Radu cel Frumos (Radu the Handsome), the youngest brother, was also Vlad’s most important rival as he continuously tried to replace Vlad on the throne. He had the support of the Turks, who he had strong connections with. Radu also was favoured by the Turkish Sultan Mehmed II.
From his first marriage, Vlad III had a son, later prince of Wallachia, as Mihnea cel Rău, Mihnea the Evil. His first wife, whose name we do not know, died during the war 1462. The legend says that the Turkish army surrounded Vlad's castle, the Poienari Castle, led by his brother Radu the Handsome. Vlad's wife threw herself off the tower into the Argeş River below the castle. According to legend she remarked that she "would rather have her body be eaten by the fish of the Argeş than be captured by the Turks." Vlad had another two sons with his second wife, a relative of King Matthias Corvinus of Hungary.
Early years [change]
Vlad was very likely born in the city of Sighişoara in Transylvania, then a part of the Kingdom of Hungary, during the winter of 1431. Sighişoara was a military fortress at that time. He was born as the second son to his father Vlad Dracul. He had an older brother, Mircea, and a younger brother, Radu the Handsome. Although his native country was Wallachia, the family lived in exile in Transylvania because his father had been chased away by pro-Ottoman boyars.
A hostage of the Ottoman Empire [change]
Vlad's father was under considerable political pressure from the (Turkish) Ottoman sultan. He gave a promise to be the vassal of the Sultan and gave up his two younger sons as hostages so that he would keep his promise.
Vlad suffered much at the hands of the Ottomans, and was locked up in an underground prison; however, his younger brother, Radu, caught the eye of the sultan's son. Radu was released and converted to Islam, and he was allowed into the Ottoman royal court.
These years had a great influence on Vlad. They shaped Vlad's character. He was often whipped and beaten by the Turks for being stubborn and rude. He developed a well-known hatred for Radu and for Mehmed, who would later become the sultan.
Short reign and exile [change]
Vlad's father and Vlad's older brother Mircea was dead at this point. The Turks invaded Wallachia and the Sultan put Vlad III on the throne as his puppet ruler. His rule at this time was short; Hunyadi invaded Wallachia and chased him away the same year. Vlad fled to Moldavia and was put under the protection of his uncle, Bogdan II.
Bogdan was assassinated. Vlad took a chance and fled to Hungary. Impressed by Vlad's knowledge of the Ottoman Empire, Hunyadi pardoned him and took him in as an adviser. Later, Hunyadi made him the Kingdom of Hungary's candidate for the throne of Wallachia.
In 1456, Hungary invaded Serbia to chase away the Turks, and at the same time Vlad III invaded Wallachia. Both invasions were successful. Hunyadi suddenly died of the plague. Vlad became prince of Wallachia.
Main reign (1456–62) [change]
Vlad was spending most of his time at the court of Târgovişte. He made laws, met foreign ambassadors, made public appearances and judged trials. He reinforced some castles and probably enjoyed hunting with his friends. The constant state of war since the death of his grandfather, Mircea the Elder, in 1418, led to increased crime levels and less agricultural production. Trade had almost disappeared in Wallachia.
Vlad tried to solve these problems with severe methods. He needed an economically stable country.
Vlad wanted to eliminate all threats to his power, mainly the rival nobility groups, such as the boyars. This was done mainly by killing them and reducing the their economic role.
The Wallachian nobility had connections with the Saxon merchants. The Saxons populated the free towns of Transylvania, making trade to flourish. Vlad was eliminating these towns trade privileges with Wallachia and he started war against them.
He then gave key positions in the Prince’s Council to obscure individuals, but who manifested loyalty towards Vlad. Vlad preferred to knight men from the free peasants. Vlad III was always on guard against the Dăneşti clan. Some of his attacks into Transylvania may have been efforts to kill or capture Dăneşti princes. Several members of the Dăneşti clan died at Vlad's hands. Rumors say that thousands of citizens of the free towns that sheltered his rivals were impaled by Vlad. One captured Dăneşti prince was forced to read his own funeral speech while he kneeled before an open grave before his execution.
Personal crusade [change]
There was a war between the Ottoman Empire and the Hungarian Kingdom. Following family traditions, Vlad decided to side with the Hungarians. To the end of the 1450s there was once again talk about a war against the Turks, in which the king of Hungary, Matthias Corvinus would play the main role. Knowing this, Vlad stopped paying money to the Ottomans in 1459, and at around 1460, he made a new alliance with Corvinus. The Turks did not like this and tried to remove him from power but they failed. In the winter of 1461 Vlad attacked and devastated the area between Serbia and the Black Sea, leaving over 20,000 people dead.
In response to this, the Sultan Mehmed II headed towards Wallachia with an army of 60,000 men in the spring of 1462. With his army of 20,000-30,000 men Vlad was not able to stop the Turks from entering Wallachia. The Turks occupied the capital Târgovişte (June 4, 1462) and chased Vlad away. Vlad was hiding and made small attacks on the Turks. On the night of June 16 Vlad and some of his men entered the main Turkish camp, wearing Turkish clothing, and attempted to kill Mehmed. Later the Turkish army retired and left Vlad’s brother, Radu the Handsome, as the new ruler prince. Radu the Handsome gathered support from the nobility and Vlad fled to Hungary. In August 1462 Radu made a deal with the Hungarian Crown.
In captivity [change]
Vlad escaped to Hungary but he was put in prison there. The exact time of Vlad's captivity is not known for sure. Apparently his imprisonment was not too dangerous. He was able to gradually win his way back into the favor of King Matthias. He was able to meet and marry a member of the royal family (the cousin of King Matthias). However, some do not believe that it was likely to happen that a prisoner was permitted to marry into the royal family.
He had two sons with his new wife. Vlad also became a member of the Roman Catholic Church. Diplomatic letters and writings from Buda during this time show that Vlad's actual period of imprisonment was short.
The openly pro-Turkish policy of Vlad's brother, Radu was probably a cause in Vlad's good treatment while in prison. It is interesting to note that the Russian texts, normally very favorable to Vlad Ţepeş, tells that even in captivity he could not give up his favorite games; he often captured birds and mice which he tortured and mutilated, and some were impaled on tiny spears.
The years before his final release in 1474 (when he began making plans for the reconquest of Wallachia), Vlad lived with his new wife in a house in the Hungarian capital. His sons were about ten years old when he reconquered Wallachia in 1476.
Return to Wallachia and death [change]
Around 1475 Vlad and Stefan Báthory of Transylvania invaded Wallachia with a mixed force of Transylvanians, some dissatisfied Wallachian boyars, and Moldavians sent by Prince Stephen III of Moldavia, Vlad's cousin. Vlad's brother, Radu the Handsome, died a couple of years earlier and had been replaced on the Wallachian throne by another Turkish candidate, Prince Basarab the Elder, a member of the Dăneşti clan. When Vlad's army arrived, Prince Basarabs army fled, some to the Turks, others in the mountains. After placing Vlad Ţepeş on the throne, Stephen Báthory and his forces returned to Transylvania, leaving Vlad in a very weak position. Vlad had little time to get support before a large Turkish army entered Wallachia to put back Prince Basarab on the throne. Vlad's cruelties over the years made the boyars to believe that they had a better chance to survive under Prince Basarab. Even the peasants, tired of the cruelty of Vlad, abandoned him. Vlad had to meet the Turks with the small forces at his disposal, which were made up of less than four thousand men.
There are several variants of Vlad III the Impaler's death. Some sources say he was killed in battle against the Turks near Bucharest in December of 1476. Others say he was killed by disloyal Wallachian boyars in the war against the Turks, or during a hunt. Others believe Vlad was killed in the war, surrounded by the bodies of his loyal Moldavian bodyguards. Still other reports claim that Vlad was accidentally killed by one of his own men. Vlad's body was decapitated by the Turks and his head was sent to Istanbul preserved in honey. The sultan had it displayed on a stake as proof that Kazıklı Bey was dead. The exact place of his grave is unknown.
Romanian tales and legends about Vlad stayed a part of folklore among the Romanian peasants. By constant retelling they have become confused and created an ideal picture of a big national hero. Among the Romanian peasants, Vlad Ţepeş was sometimes remembered as a prince who defended his country. But the Romanian tales also remember Vlad as a very cruel and often capricious ruler. There are several events that are common to all tales. There is a tale about some foreign ambassadors received by Vlad Ţepeş at Târgovişte and all versions agree that Vlad, in response to some real or imagined insult, (perhaps because they refused to remove the hats in Vlad's presence), had their hats nailed to their heads.
A good description of Vlad Dracula survives, courtesy of Nicholas of Modrussa, who wrote:
He was not very tall, but very stocky and strong, with a cruel and terrible appearance, a long straight nose, distended nostrils, a thin and reddish face in which the large wide-open green eyes were enframed by bushy black eyebrows, which made them appear threatening. His face and chin were shaven but for a moustache. The swollen temples increased the bulk of his head. A bull's neck supported the head, from which black curly locks were falling to his wide-shouldered person.
Vlad III Ţepeş has been characterized by some, as very cruel. Impalement was Ţepeş's preferred method of torture and execution. His method of torture was a horse attached to each of the victim's legs as a sharpened stake was gradually forced into the body.
Vlad often had the stakes arranged in various geometric patterns. The most common pattern was a ring outside of a city that was his target. The height of the spear indicated the rank of the victim. The corpses were often left there for months.
Some say that thousands of people were impaled at a single time. One such tale says 10,000 were impaled in the Transylvanian city of Sibiu (where Vlad the Impaler had once lived) in 1460. Another tale says that on Saint Bartholomew's Day (in August), Vlad the Impaler had 30,000 of the merchants and officials of the free Transylvanian city of Braşov impaled. One of the most famous woodcuts of the period shows Vlad the Impaler feasting amongst a forest of stakes outside Braşov, while a nearby executioner cuts apart other victims.
Impalement was Vlad the Impaler's favorite method, but not his only method, of torture. Other torture methods include nails in heads, cutting off limbs, strangulation, burning, cutting off noses and ears, mutilation of sexual organs (especially in the case of women), scalping, skinning, exposure to the elements or to animals, and boiling alive. No one was immune to Vlad the Impaler's attention. His victims included women and children, peasants and great lords, ambassadors from foreign powers and merchants. However, the vast majority of his European victims came from the merchants and boyars of Transylvania and his own country, Wallachia. Many have tried to justify Vlad's actions on the basis of nationalism. Most of the merchants in Transylvania and Wallachia were the German-speaking Saxons who were seen as bad people because they were not Romanian. He saw the boyars as people who were not loyal (Vlad's own father and older brother were murdered by boyars).
Almost as soon as he came to power, he gave a party for his boyars and their families to celebrate Easter. Vlad was aware that many of these nobles were part of the conspiracy around his father's death. Vlad, to avenge his father's death, had all the assembled nobles arrested. The older boyars were impaled on the spot. The younger nobles and their families were marched north from Târgovişte to the ruins of Poienari Castle in the mountains above the Argeş River. The boyars and their families were forced to work for months rebuilding the old castle. According to the reports, they worked until the clothes fell off their bodies, and then were forced to continue working naked. Very few survived the building of Vlad's castle. Vlad Ţepeş is believed to committed even more impalements and other tortures against the Turkish forces. It was reported that an invading Ottoman army turned back when they saw thousands of rotting corpses impaled on the banks of the river Danube. It has also been said that in 1462 Mehmed II returned to Constantinople after being sickened by the sight of 20,000 impaled corpses outside of Vlad's capital of Târgovişte. Many of the victims were Turkish prisoners of war.
Anecdotal evidence [change]
Much of the information we have about Vlad III Ţepeş comes from pamphlets (texts) published in the Holy Roman Empire and texts written in Russian. The first known German texts dates from 1488 and it is possible that some were printed during Vlad’s lifetime. The texts were also a form of mass entertainment in a society where the printing press was new. The texts were reprinted many times over the thirty years following Vlad's death. The German texts painted Vlad Ţepeş as someone who terrorized the land and killed innocents. The Russian texts took a somewhat different view. The princes of Muscovy were also having trouble with boyars. They preferred to see Vlad's actions as justified. Despite the differences in interpretation, the texts, regardless of their land of origin, agree on details. This make most historians to believe that some events actually occurred.
Vlad's cruelty against his own people of Wallachia were seen as attempts to make them behave better. According to the texts, he was particularly cruel against women. Young unmarried girls who lost their virginity, unfaithful wives, and widows who had sex were all targets of Vlad's cruelty. Such women often had their sexual organs cut out. They were also often impaled.[source?] Vlad wanted his people to work hard. Merchants who cheated their customers were likely to be killed.
The vampire legend [change]
It is unclear why Bram Stoker chose this Wallachian prince as the model for his fictional vampire.[source?] Stoker was a friend of a Hungarian professor (Arminius Vambery/Hermann Vamberger) from Budapest, and many have suggested that Vlad's name might have been mentioned by this friend. Regardless of how the name came to Stoker's attention, the cruel history of the Impaler was suitable for Stoker's purposes. The events of Vlad's life happened in a region of the world that was still basically medieval in Stoker's time. There have always been vampire-like creatures in various stories from across the world. However, the vampire, as he became known in Europe, largely originated in Southern Slavic and Greek folklore. The vampire tale is virtually absent in Romanian culture. A veritable epidemic of vampirism swept through Europe beginning in the late 17th century. Philosophers in the West began to study the phenomenon. It was during this period that Dom Augustine Calmet wrote his famous text on vampirism in Hungary. It was also during this period that authors and playwrights first began to explore the vampire legend. Stoker's novel was a work in a long series of works that were inspired by the reports coming from the Balkans.
Perhaps it is natural that Stoker should place his great vampire in the heart of the region that gave birth to the story.
- Richard Pallardy. "Vlad III (ruler of Walachia)". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/631524/Vlad-III. Retrieved 7 April 2013.
- Florescu, Radu R.; McNally, Raymond T. (1989). Dracula: Prince of Many Faces. Little Brown and Company. ISBN 0-316-28655-9.
- Radu R., Florescu; McNally, Raymond T. (1994). In Search of Dracula. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-65783-0.
- Treptow, Kurt W. (2000). Vlad III Dracula: The Life and Times of the Historical Dracula. Center for Romanian Studies. ISBN 973-98392-2-3.
- Babinger, Franz (1992). Mehmed the Conqueror and His Time. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0691010786.
Other websites [change]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Vlad Tepes|
- Vlad Tepes - Dracula Between Hero and Vampire
- Vlad III Dracula
- Vlad's History
- Vlad's Biography
- Vlad III Dracula
- The Tale of Dracula Russian manuscript circa 1490, with English translation (MS Word format)
- The Real Life of Dracula
- The Politics of Count Dracula
- Dark Prince: The True Story of Dracula (2000) (TV)
- Coins attributed to Vlad III Tepes
|Prince of Wallachia
|Prince of Wallachia
Radu cel Frumos
Basarab Laiotă cel Bătrân
|Prince of Wallachia
Basarab Laiotă cel Bătrân