Weimar Republic

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German Reich
Deutsches Reich

1919–1933
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem
Das Lied der Deutschen
Germany during the Weimar period.
Capital Berlin
Language(s) German
Government Republic
President
 - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert
 - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg
Chancellor
 - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann (first)
 - 1933 Adolf Hitler (last)
Legislature Reichstag
 - State council Reichsrat
Historical era Interwar period
 - Established 9 November 1918 1919
 - Hitler takes office 30 January 1933
 - Reichstag fire 27 February 1933
 - Enabling Act 23 March 1933
Area
 - 1925[1] 468,787 km2 (181,000 sq mi)
Population
 - 1925[1] est. 62,411,000 
     Density 133.1 /km2  (344.8 /sq mi)
Currency Papiermark (1919-1923)
Reichsmark (1924-1933)

The Weimar Republic (German: Weimarer Republik) is the name now used for the republic that governed Germany from 1919 to 1933.

Origin[change | change source]

After the German Empire was defeated in World War I, Germany became a republic, but it was still called "Deutsches Reich" (German Empire). Today it is called the Weimar Republic and this period is called the Weimar period, because the constitution was made in the city of Weimar.

Beginning[change | change source]

On November 9, 1918, the Republic was proclaimed by Philipp Scheidemann at the Reichstag building in Berlin and two hours later a socialist republic was proclaimed around the corner at the Berlin Castle by Karl Liebknecht.

The Emperor, or Kaiser, Wilhelm II, went into exile in the Netherlands. The new Republic was declared even before the end of World War I.

Problems[change | change source]

The Weimar Republic had a lot of problems. The Treaty of Versailles made things very difficult for the economy. Inflation got completely out of hand. There were political problems because governments ruled only for a very short time, not long enough to be able to make important decisions. There were a lot of radical right and left extremists, for example monarchists (people who wanted back the monarchy) and communists, who believed that all things, especially property, land and money, should be shared.

Positives[change | change source]

The Weimar period is also known for its culture. Artists tried out modern ideas and used new things like film. The Bauhaus began in the 1920s too.

End[change | change source]

What we now call The Weimar Republic came to an end on 23 March 1933, when Chancellor Adolf Hitler installed the Enabling Act, which established the Third Reich.

Other websites[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. "Das Deutsche Reich im Überblick". Wahlen in der Weimarer Republik. http://www.gonschior.de/weimar/Deutschland/index.htm. Retrieved 2007-04-26.