16 Psyche

From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
16 Psyche Astronomical symbol for 16 Psyche
Discovered byAnnibale de Gasparis
Discovery dateMarch 17, 1852
Main belt
Orbital characteristics
Epoch October 22, 2004 (JD 2453300.5)
Aphelion497.884 Gm (3.328 AU)
Perihelion375.958 Gm (2.513 AU)
436.921 Gm (2.921 AU)
1823.115 d (4.99 a)
17.34 km/s
Physical characteristics
Dimensions~280×230×190 km[1][2][3][4][5]
Mass~1.7×1019 kg [6]
Mean density
3.3 ± 0.7 g/cm³[7]
~0.06 m/s²
~0.13 km/s
0.1748 d (4.196 h) [8]
Albedo0.120 (geometric)[1]
Temperature~160 K
max: ~280 K (+7 °C)
Spectral type
9.27 (brightest?)

16 Psyche is a very big Main belt asteroid, well over 200 kilometers in diameter, and likely the biggest of the metallic M-type asteroids. It is estimated to have 0.6 percent of the mass of the entire asteroid belt.[6]

This asteroid was found by Annibale de Gasparis on March 17, 1852 from Naples and named after the Greek nymph Psyche. The first fifteen asteroids to be found were given symbols by astronomers as a type of short-hand notation. In 1851, however, J. F. Encke suggested using a circled number. 16 Psyche was the first new asteroid to be found that was designated with this scheme (in 1852 by J. Ferguson).[9]

Characteristics[change | change source]

Radar[10][11] observations indicate that it is made of iron-nickel. Psyche appears to be a case of an exposed metallic core from a bigger differentiated parent body. Unlike some other M-type asteroids, Psyche shows no sign of the presence of water or water-bearing minerals on its surface, consistent with its interpretation as a metallic body.[12] Small amounts of pyroxene appear to be present.[13]

If Psyche is the core remnant of a bigger parent body, we might expect other asteroids on similar orbits. Psyche does not belong to any asteroid family.[14] One theory is that the collision occurred very early in the solar system's history, and all the other remnants have since been ground into fragments by subsequent collisions or had their orbits perturbed beyond recognition.

Psyche is massive enough that its perturbations on other asteroids can be measured, which enables a mass measurement. Its density is fairly low for metal (although fairly common for asteroids as such), indicating a fairly high porosity of 30–40%.[7]

Psyche appears to have a fairly round surface and is approximately ellipsoidal in shape. Recent lightcurve analysis indicates that its pole points towards either ecliptic coordinates (β, λ) = (-9°, 35°) or (β, λ) = (-2°, 215°) with a 10° uncertainty.[3] This gives an axial tilt of 95°.

Two stellar occultations by Psyche have been seen (from Mexico on March 22, 2002, and another on May 16, 2002). Lightcurve changes indicate a non-spherical body, consistent with the lightcurve and radar results.

References[change | change source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Supplemental IRAS Minor Planet Survey". Archived from the original on 2010-01-17. Retrieved 2007-12-18.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  2. Dunham, D. W. and Herald, D. (2006). "Asteroid Occultations". EAR-A-3-RDR-OCCULTATIONS-V4.1. NASA Planetary Data System. Retrieved 2007-04-03.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  3. 3.0 3.1 M. Kaasalainen; et al. (2002). "Models of Twenty Asteroids from Photometric Data" (PDF). Icarus. 159 (2): 369. Bibcode:2002Icar..159..369K. doi:10.1006/icar.2002.6907. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-02-16. Retrieved 2007-12-18.
  4. Magnusson, P. and Neese, C., ed. (1996). "Asteroid Spin Vectors". EAR-A-5-DDR-ASTEROID-SPIN-VECTORS-V4.2. NASA Planetary Data System. Archived from the original on 2010-01-17. Retrieved 2007-04-03.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: editors list (link)
  5. A. Cellino; et al. (2002). "Speckle interferometry observations of main belt asteroids at TNG" (PDF). Proceedings of Asteroids, Comets, Meteors - ACM 2002. International Conference. 500: 497. Bibcode:2002ESASP.500..497C. [dead link]
  6. 6.0 6.1 B. Vitaeau (2000). "Mass and density of asteroids (16) Psyche and (121) Hermione" (PDF). Astronomy & Astrophysics. 354: 725. Bibcode:2000A&A...354..725V. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2007-12-18.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Lupishko, D. F. (2006). "On the bulk density and porosity of M-type asteroid 16 Psyche". Solar System Research. 40 (3): 214–218. Bibcode:2006SoSyR..40..214L. doi:10.1134/S0038094606030051. S2CID 119643558. Retrieved 2007-02-04.
  8. "PDS lightcurve data". Archived from the original on 2010-01-17. Retrieved 2007-12-18.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  9. Hilton, J. (September 17, 2001). "When Did the Asteroids Become Minor Planets?". U.S. Naval Observatory. Archived from the original on 2007-06-24. Retrieved 2007-04-03.
  10. S.J. Ostro (1985). "Radar observations of asteroids and comets" (PDF). Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Publications. 97: 877. Bibcode:1985PASP...97..877O. doi:10.1086/131619. S2CID 120491725.
  11. C. Magri; et al. (1999). "Mainbelt Asteroids: Results of Arecibo and Goldstone Radar Observations of 37 Objects during 1980-1995". Icarus. 140 (2): 379. Bibcode:1999Icar..140..379M. doi:10.1006/icar.1999.6130.
  12. E. Merényi; et al. (1997). "Prediction of Water in Asteroids from Spectral Data Shortward of 3 µm". Icarus. 129 (2): 421. Bibcode:1997Icar..129..421M. doi:10.1006/icar.1997.5796.
  13. P.S. Hardersen, M.J. Gaffey, and P.A. Abell (2005). "Near-IR spectral evidence for the presence of iron-poor orthopyroxenes on the surfaces of six M-type asteroids". Icarus. 175 (1): 141. Bibcode:2005Icar..175..141H. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2004.10.017.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  14. D.R. Davis, P. Farinella, & M. Francesco (1999). "The Missing Psyche Family: Collisionally Eroded or Never Formed?". Icarus. 137 (1): 140. Bibcode:1999Icar..137..140D. doi:10.1006/icar.1998.6037.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)

Other websites[change | change source]