2011 Christchurch earthquake

Coordinates: 43°35′00″S 172°42′04″E / 43.5834°S 172.7012°E / -43.5834; 172.7012
From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
2011 Christchurch earthquake
2011 Christchurch earthquake is located in New Zealand
2011 Christchurch earthquake
UTC time2011-02-21 23:51:42
ISC event16168897
Local date22 February 2011 (2011-02-22)
Local time12:51 p.m. NZDT
Depth5 km (3.1 mi)
Epicenter43°35′00″S 172°42′04″E / 43.5834°S 172.7012°E / -43.5834; 172.7012
near Lyttelton, Canterbury, New Zealand
Areas affectedNew Zealand
Max. intensityIX (Violent)[2]
Peak acceleration1.88g (city); 2.2g (epicentre)
Tsunami3.5 m (11 ft) tsunami waves in the Tasman Lake, following quake-triggered glacier calving from Tasman Glacier[3][4]
LandslidesSumner and Redcliffs
Casualties185 deaths[5][6]
1,500–2,000 injuries, 164 serious[7]
Pico building in Christchurch

The 2011 Christchurch earthquake was a 6.3 magnitude earthquake[8] which struck the South Island of New Zealand at 12:51 pm on 22 February 2011 NZT. (This is 23:51 21 February UTC).[8] It was about 5 km underground.[9] It struck the Canterbury region of the island and caused a lot of damage and many deaths in Christchurch, New Zealand's second largest city.

It was the largest aftershock of the 4 September 2010 Canterbury earthquake,[10] although it is being regarded as a separate earthquake. It was smaller than the September earthquake, but it was more damaging because it was closer to Christchurch and nearer to the surface of the earth. It also happened at lunchtime on a Tuesday compared to before dawn on a Saturday, which meant that more people were outside and in danger of being injured by falling buildings. Buildings were also already weakened from the previous quakes.[11][12] The intensity felt in Christchurch was MM VIII[broken anchor].[13]

Prime Minister John Key said that the 22nd of February "may well be New Zealand's darkest day".[14] At least 166 people have been confirmed dead with the final death toll expected to be over 200.[15]

At the end of the first day 65 people were known to have died,[16] and the number is expected to rise. Over 100 people may be trapped in one building alone.[17] The New Zealand Fire Service says many people were injured and trapped in buildings.[18] At 5pm local time Radio New Zealand reported that 80% of the city was without electricity. Water and wastewater services are not working in many parts of the city. People are being asked to use as little water as possible and to collect rainwater. It is expected that the State of Emergency Level 3, the highest possible in a regional disaster, will last at least five days. Medical staff from the army are being used.

The Sydney Morning Herald reported that two buses and a number of cars were crushed by falling buildings.[19]

Buildings damaged[change | change source]

Damaged house in Christchurch

Buildings have collapsed around Cathedral Square in downtown Christchurch. The spire of ChristChurch Cathedral has completely collapsed. Christchurch Hospital was evacuated due to damage in some areas,[20] but soon reopened to treat the injured. It has treated over 220 serious injuries so far, even though sometimes they were working by torchlight. The New Zealand defence forces have been called in to help move people out of the central business district.[21] Fires were reported at the Canterbury Television (CTV) building.

The Pyne Gould Corporation building on Cambridge Terrace has suffered a lot of damage (photo), and some of the building's 200 workers are believed to be trapped within. Screams have been heard from inside.[22]

The historic Canterbury Provincial Chambers building has also suffered major damage from the earthquake.[12]

The Statistics New Zealand buildings in Christchurch were also damaged. They were due to process much of the March 2011 census of New Zealand. The census has been cancelled because people living in Christchurch have had their lives seriously disrupted.[23] This is the third time the census has been cancelled, the previous two times being during the Great Depression and World War II.[24]

Christchurch Cathedral[change | change source]

ChristChurch Cathedral - 2011 earthquake damage

ChristChurch Cathedral has lost the top of its main spire and its roof has fallen in.[25][26] (photos Archived 2012-11-10 at the Wayback Machine) Initial reports said 22 people were in the spire at the time of the collapse.[27] However, after the building was made safe to enter over a week after the quake, and searched thoroughly, no bodies were located.

Cathedral of the Blessed Sacrament[change | change source]

The Catholic cathedral of Christchurch, the Cathedral of the Blessed Sacrament, has half collapsed.[28]

Lyttelton[change | change source]

Buildings in Lyttelton have been damaged; a fire officer said that 60% of the buildings in the main street have collapsed.[29] The town's historic Timeball Station was also badly damaged. The New Zealand Historic Places Trust who own the building have decided that it is unsafe to try to repair it. It will be dismantled, if possible, and perhaps re-constructed.

Beyond Christchurch and Lyttelton[change | change source]

Around 30 million tonnes of ice fell off Tasman Glacier into Tasman Lake, about 200 kilometres (120 mi) from the epicentre, hitting tour boats with waves 3.5 high.[30]

The quake was felt as far north as Tauranga[31] and as far south as Invercargill, where the 111 emergency network was damaged and stopped working.[32]

Emergency response and relief efforts[change | change source]

New Zealand Prime Minister, John Key, said "All Civil Defence procedures have now been activated; the Civil Defence bunker at Parliament is in operation here in Wellington."[33] Civil Defence has alerted all Urban Search and Rescue teams in Christchurch. The New Zealand Red Cross is also involved.[34]

Australia has offered help, and immediately sent a search and rescue team of 70 from New South Wales on a RAAF C-130 Hercules.[22] Foreign Affairs Minister Kevin Rudd also said a second team from South Australia will also be sent with more equipment. Australian Prime Minister Julia Gillard has offered John Key any other help he may need.[35] The United States and Japan have also offered help.[36]

Christchurch International Airport was only open for emergency air traffic,[37] but has now been opened to all local and domestic flights. The earthquake has affected all air traffic in New Zealand. Air traffic control services by Airways New Zealand, the national Air Traffic Control organisation, have been disrupted.[38]

Related pages[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. "M 6.2 Christchurch Tue, Feb 22 2011". Geonet. Retrieved 23 March 2018.
  2. "M 6.3, Christchurch, 22 February 2011". GeoNet. Retrieved 25 August 2016.
  3. "Ice breaks off glacier after Christchurch quake". ABC News. 22 February 2011. Retrieved 11 March 2011.
  4. "Earthquake causes glacier to calve". Stuff.co.nz. 23 February 2011. Retrieved 11 March 2011.
  5. "Official quake toll rises to 185". Stuff.co. 9 February 2012. Retrieved 9 February 2012.
  6. "List of deceased – Christchurch earthquake". New Zealand Police. 8 September 2011. Retrieved 26 December 2011.
  7. "Earthquake death toll reaches 113". Stuff.co.nz. 25 February 2011. Archived from the original on 24 May 2012. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
  8. 8.0 8.1 "New Zealand Earthquake Report - Feb 22 2011 at 12:51 pm (NZDT)". GeoNet. Earthquake Commission and GNS Science. 22 February 2011. Archived from the original on 23 February 2011. Retrieved 22 February 2011.
  9. M6.3 – South Island of New Zealand, USGS
  10. Foley, Meraiah (February 22, 2011). "Scores Killed in New Zealand Earthquake". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 February 2011.
  11. "Deadly quake could be sign of more to come". NZ Herald. 2011-02-22. Retrieved 2011-02-22.
  12. 12.0 12.1 "New Zealand hit by strong quake, 65 dead". CBC. 2011-02-22. Retrieved 2011-02-22.
  13. "M6.1 – South Island of New Zealand".
  14. "65 dead in devastating Christchurch quake". Stuff. 23 February 2011.
  15. McDonald, Philippa (26 February 2011). "NZ quake toll surges to 145, fears for 200 - ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)". abc.net.au. Retrieved 26 February 2011.
  16. "Deaths, destruction in Christchurch quake - stuff.co.nz". 22 Feb 2011. Archived from the original on 23 February 2011. Retrieved 22 Feb 2011.
  17. "Christchurch quake: More than 100 may have died in CTV". New Zealand Herald. 23 February 2011.
  18. "Huge earthquake hits Christchurch city centre". Radio New Zealand News. 22 February 2011.
  19. Sands, Neil (22 February 2011). "NZ quake leaves 65 dead, 100 missing". The Sydney Morning Herald.
  20. Radio New Zealand, monitored 8:55 pm EST
  21. "Live updates: 6.3 earthquake rocks Christchurch, New Zealand". News Limited. Archived from the original on 23 February 2011. Retrieved 22 February 2011.
  22. 22.0 22.1 "Latest updates: Christchurch earthquake". 22 February 2011 – via www.nzherald.co.nz.
  23. "2011 Census cancelled due to quake". TVNZ. Retrieved 25 February 2011.
  24. Quilliam, Rebecca (25 February 2011). "Christchurch earthquake: Law change needed to cancel census". New Zealand Herald. APN Holdings Ltd. Retrieved 25 February 2011.
  25. "Large quake strikes Christchurch". Dominion Post. 2011. Archived from the original on 24 September 2012. Retrieved 22 February 2011.
  26. "Christchurch quake: People likely to be trapped in cathedral (+ photos)". 22 February 2011 – via www.nzherald.co.nz.
  27. "Christchurch quake: latest info". Stuff. 25 February 2011.
  28. "Deaths in Christchurch quake". The New Zealand Herald - nzherald.co.nz. Retrieved 22 February 2011.
  29. "Scores of people killed in Christchurch quake". Radio New Zealand. 2011-02-22. Retrieved 2011-02-22.
  30. "Quake shakes 30m tonnes of ice off glacier". New Zealand Herald. 22 February 2011.
  31. "Seismologist had hoped time for large shock had passed". New Zealand Herald. 2011-02-22. Retrieved 2011-02-22.
  32. "Emergency 111 system knocked out in Southland". Radio New Zealand News. 22 February 2011.
  33. "Christchurch quake: Emergency Cabinet meeting". 22 February 2011 – via www.nzherald.co.nz.
  34. "Accessed 22 February 2011 9:57 PM NZT". Archived from the original on 2011-03-13. Retrieved 2011-02-22.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  35. "Newser | Headline News Summaries, World News, and Breaking News". Archived from the original on 2022-03-09. Retrieved 2011-02-22.
  36. "'Significant' Christchurch hotels collapsed: Carter". Stuff. 22 February 2011.
  37. "65 dead in devastating Christchurch quake | Stuff.co.nz". Archived from the original on 2012-09-24. Retrieved 2011-02-22.
  38. New Zealand airspace closed: flights diverted, planes circling, Australian Business Traveller

Other websites[change | change source]