|A group of fire ants.|
Ants form colonies that vary greatly in size. Some species have a few dozen predatory individuals living in small natural cavities. Some highly organised colonies may cover large territories and have millions of individuals. Ants are usually small, but can carry the weight of twenty ants. Worker ants carry food back to the colony so that other ants and the queen can eat.
The following account is mainly about ants which live in large colonies.
Colonies[change | change source]
A colony has a female reproductive ant, called a queen, who lays eggs. Those eggs will hatch into worker ants. Larger colonies of ants having millions of ants mostly have female ants making groups of workers, soldiers, or other special castes. Almost all ant colonies also have some fertile male ants called drones.
Evolution[change | change source]
Phylogenetic analysis suggests that ants arose in the Lower Cretaceous period about 110 to 130 million years ago, or even earlier. One estimate from DNA studies places the origin of ants at ≈140 million years ago (mya). Another study puts it in the Jurassic at 185 ± 36 mya (95% confidence limits).
In 1966 E.O. Wilson and his colleagues identified the fossil remains of an ant (Sphecomyrma freyi) from the Cretaceous period. The specimen, trapped in amber dating back to more than 80 million years ago, has features of both ants and wasps. Sphecomyrma was probably a ground forager but some suggest that primitive ants were likely to have been predators underneath the surface of the soil.
During the Cretaceous period, a few species of primitive ants ranged widely on the Laurasian super-continent (the northern hemisphere). They were scarce in comparison to other insects, representing about 1% of the insect population.
Ants became dominant after adaptive radiation at the beginning of the Cainozoic. By the Oligocene and Miocene ants had come to represent 20-40% of all insects found in major fossil deposits. Of the species that lived in the Eocene epoch, approximately one in ten genera survive to the present. Genera surviving today comprise 56% of the genera in Baltic amber fossils (early Oligocene), and 92% of the genera in Dominican amber fossils (apparently early Miocene).p23
Termites, though sometimes called white ants, are not ants and belong to the order Isoptera. Termites are actually more closely related to cockroaches and mantids. Termites are eusocial but differ greatly in the genetics of reproduction. The similar social structure is attributed to convergent evolution. Velvet ants look like large ants, but are wingless female wasps.
Development and reproduction[change | change source]
The life of an ant starts from an egg. If the egg is fertilised, the progeny will be female (diploid); if not, it will be male (haploid). Ants develop by complete metamorphosis with the larval stages passing through a pupal stage before emerging as an adult. The larva is fed and cared for by workers.
The differentiation into queens and workers (which are both female), and different castes of workers, is influenced in some species by the food the larvae get. Genetic influences, and the control of gene expression by the feeding are complex. The determination of caste is a major subject of research.p351, 372
A new worker spends the first few days of its adult life caring for the queen and young. It then does digging and other nest work, and later, defends the nest and forages. These changes are sometimes fairly sudden, and define what are called temporal castes. An explanation for the sequence is suggested by the high casualties involved in foraging, making it an acceptable risk only for ants that are older and are likely to die soon of natural causes.
Mating[change | change source]
Most ant species have a system in which only the queen and breeding females can mate. Contrary to popular belief, some ant nests have multiple queens (polygyny). The life history of Harpegnathos saltator is exceptional among ants because both queens and some workers reproduce sexually.
The winged male ants, called drones, emerge from pupae with the breeding females (although some species, like army ants, have wingless queens), and do nothing in life except eat and mate.
The nuptial flight[change | change source]
Most ants produce a new generation each year. During the species specific breeding period, new reproductives, winged males and females leave the colony in what is called a nuptial flight. Typically, the males take flight before the females. Males then use visual cues to find a common mating ground, for example, a landmark such as a pine tree to which other males in the area converge. Males secrete a mating pheromone that females follow. Females of some species mate with just one male, but in some others they may mate with anywhere from one to ten or more different males. Mated females then seek a suitable place to begin a colony. There, they break off their wings and begin to lay and care for eggs. The females store the sperm they obtain during their nuptial flight to selectively fertilise future eggs.
The first workers to hatch are weak and smaller than later workers, but they begin to serve the colony immediately. They enlarge the nest, forage for food and care for the other eggs. This is how new colonies start in most species. Species that have multiple queens may have a queen leaving the nest along with some workers to found a colony at a new site,p143 a process akin to swarming in honeybees.
A wide range of reproductive strategies have been noted in ant species. Females of many species are known to be capable of reproducing asexually through parthenogenesis, and one species, Mycocepurus smithii is known to be all-female.
Ant colonies can be long-lived. The queens can live for up to 30 years, and workers live from 1 to 3 years. Males, however, are more transitory, and survive only a few weeks. Ant queens are estimated to live 100 times longer than solitary insects of a similar size.
Ants are active all year long in the tropics but, in cooler regions, survive the winter in a state of dormancy or inactivity. The forms of inactivity are varied and some temperate species have larvae going into the inactive state (diapause), while in others, the adults alone pass the winter in a state of reduced activity.
Uses[change | change source]
It may seem strange that ants have uses, but there are some. Some people use ants for food, medicine and rituals. Some species of ants are used for pest control (they eat pests that destroy food for humans). They can damage crops and enter buildings, though. Some species, like the red imported fire ant, live in places where they came to by complete accident.
Related pages[change | change source]
Notes[change | change source]
- Moreau CS, Bell CD, Vila R, Archibald SB, Pierce NE (April 2006). "Phylogeny of the ants: diversification in the age of angiosperms". Science 312 (5770): 101–4. doi:10.1126/science.1124891. PMID 16601190.
- Ward, Philip S (2007). "Phylogeny, classification, and species-level taxonomy of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)" (PDF). Zootaxa 1668: 549–563. http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2007f/zt01668p563.pdf.
- Rabeling C, Brown JM, Verhaagh M (2008). "Newly discovered sister lineage sheds light on early ant evolution". PNAS 105 (39): 14913–7. doi:10.1073/pnas.0806187105. PMC 2567467. PMID 18794530.
- Brady, Seán G; Fisher, Brian L; Schultz, Ted R; Ward, Philip S (2014). "The rise of army ants and their relatives: diversification of specialized predatory doryline ants". BMC Evolutionary Biology 14: 2–14. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-14-93. PMC 4021219. PMID 24886136.
- pronounced /fɔrˈmɪsɨdiː/). The word ant comes from ante, a Middle English which comes from æmette of Old English and is related to the Old High German āmeiza. All of these words come from West Germanic *amaitjo. It meant "the biter" (from *ai-, "off, away" and *mait- "cut"). ""ant". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 6 June 2008.
- "Ant. Online Etymology Dictionary". Retrieved 30 May 2009. The family name Formicidae is from the Latin word formīca ("ant"). Simpson DP (1979). Cassell's Latin Dictionary (5 ed.). London: Cassell Ltd. ISBN 978-0-304-52257-6. The word "ant" in other languages such as the Portuguese formiga, Italian formica, Spanish hormiga, Romanian furnică and French fourmi come from the Latin word.
- Bolton, Barry (1995). A new General Catalogue of the Ants of the World. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-61514-4.
- "Hymenoptera name server. Formicidae species count". Ohio State University.
- Agosti D, Johnson N.F (2003). La nueva taxonomía de hormigas. Pages 45-48 in Fernández, F. Introducción a las hormigas de la región neotropical (PDF). Instituto Humboldt, Bogotá.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
- Wade, Nicholas (15 July 2008). "Taking a cue from ants on evolution of humans". New York Times. Retrieved 15 July 2008.
- Oster, George F.; Wilson, Edward O. (1978). Caste and ecology in the social insects. Princeton University Press, Princeton. p. 21–22. ISBN 978-0-691-02361-8.
- Oster, George F.; Wilson, Edward O. (1978). Caste and ecology in the social insects. Princeton University Press, Princeton. pp. 21–22. ISBN 978-0-691-02361-8.
- Flannery, Tim (2011). A Natural History of the Planet. Grove/Atlantic, Inc. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-8021-9560-9.
- Brady S.G. 2003. Evolution of the army ant syndrome: the origin and long-term evolutionary stasis of a complex of behavioral and reproductive adaptations. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 100, 6575–6579.Evolution of the army ant syndrome: The origin and long-term evolutionary stasis of a complex of behavioral and reproductive adaptations | PNAS
- Crozier R.H, Jermiin L.S. & Chiotis M. 1997. Molecular evidence for a Jurassic origin of ants. Naturwissenschaften 84, 22–23.
- Grimaldi D, Agosti D (2001). "A formicine in New Jersey Cretaceous amber (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and early evolution of the ants". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 97 (25): 13678–13683. doi:10.1073/pnas.240452097. PMC 17635. PMID 11078527. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST&journalCode=pnas&resid=97/25/13678.
- Moreau CS et al (2006). "Phylogeny of the ants: diversification in the Age of Angiosperms". Science 312 (5770): 101–104. doi:10.1126/science.1124891. PMID 16601190. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/312/5770/101.
- Wilson E.O, Hölldobler B (2005). "The rise of the ants: A phylogenetic and ecological explanation". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102 (21): 7411–7414. doi:10.1073/pnas.0502264102. PMC 1140440. PMID 15899976. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/102/21/7411.
- Wilson E.O., Carpenter FM, Brown WL (1967). "The first Mesozoic ants". Science 157 (3792): 1038–1040. doi:10.1126/science.157.3792.1038. PMID 17770424.
- Holldobler, Bert; Wilson, Edward O. (1998). The Ants. Springer. ISBN 978-3-540-52092-4.
- Thorne, Barbara L (1997). "Evolution of eusociality in termites" (PDF). Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 28: 27–53. doi:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.28.1.27. http://www.thornelab.umd.edu/Termite_PDFS/EvolutionEusocialityTermites.pdf.
- "Order Isoptera - Termites". Iowa State University Entomology. 2004. Retrieved 12 June 2008.
- "Family Mutillidae - Velvet ants". Iowa State University Entomology. 2004. Retrieved 12 June 2008.
- Gillott, Cedric (1995). Entomology. Springer. p. 325. ISBN 978-0-306-44967-3.
- Anderson, Kirk E.; Linksvayer, Timothy A.; Smith, Chris R. (2008). "The causes and consequences of genetic caste determination in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)". Myrmecol. News 11: 119–132. http://myrmecologicalnews.org/cms/images/pdf/volume11/mn11_119-132_non-printable.pdf.
- Traniello JFA (1989). "Foraging strategies of ants". Annual Review of Entomology 34: 191–210. doi:10.1146/annurev.en.34.010189.001203.
- Sorensen A, Busch TM, Vinson SB (1984). "Behavioral flexibility of temporal sub-castes in the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, in response to food". Psyche 91: 319–332. doi:10.1155/1984/39236. http://psyche.entclub.org/91/91-319.html.
- Peeters C, Holldobler B (1995). "Reproductive cooperation between queens and their mated workers: The complex life history of an ant with a valuable nest" (PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 92 (24): 10977–10979. doi:10.1073/pnas.92.24.10977. PMC 40553. PMID 11607589. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/reprint/92/24/10977.pdf.
- Taylor, Richard W. (2007). "Bloody funny wasps! Speculations on the evolution of eusociality in ants". In Snelling R.R., B.L. Fisher, & P S. Ward. Advances in ant systematics (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): homage to E.O. Wilson – 50 years of contributions. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute, 80. American Entomological Institute. pp. 580–609.CS1 maint: Multiple names: editors list (link)
- Heinze, Jurgen; Tsuji, Kazuki (1995). "Ant reproductive strategies" (PDF). Res. Popul. Ecol. 37 (2): 135–149. doi:10.1007/BF02515814. http://meme.biology.tohoku.ac.jp/POPECOL/RP%20PDF/37(2)/pp.135.pdf.
- Himler, Anna G.; Caldera, EJ; Baer, BC; Fernández-Marín, H; Mueller, UG (2009). "No sex in fungus-farming ants or their crops". Proc. R. Soc. B 276 (1667): 2611. doi:10.1098/rspb.2009.0313. PMC 2686657. PMID 19369264.
- Keller L (1998). "Queen lifespan and colony characteristics in ants and termites". Insectes Sociaux 45: 235–246. doi:10.1007/s000400050084.
- Resh, Vincent H.; Carde, Ring T. (2003). Encyclopedia of Insects. San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 29–32. ISBN 978-0-12-586990-4.
- Kipyatkov V.E (2001). "Seasonal life cycles and the forms of dormancy in ants (Hymenoptera, Formicoidea)". Acta Societatis Zoologicae Bohemicae 65 (2): 198–217.
Further reading[change | change source]
- Borror, Donald Joyce; Johnson, Norman F.; Triplehorn, Charles A. (1989). An Introduction to the Study of Insects. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.
- Hölldobler B. and Wilson E.O. 1998. Journey to the ants: a story of scientific exploration. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-48526-6
- Holldobler, Bert; Wilson, Edward O. (1998). The Ants. Springer. ISBN 978-3-540-52092-4.
- Holldobler, Bert; Wilson, Edward O. (2009). The Superorganism: The Beauty, Elegance, and Strangeness of Insect Societies. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-06704-0.
Other websites[change | change source]
|Wikispecies has information on: ants.|
- Media related to Formicidae at Wikimedia Commons
- "Antweb from The California Academy of Sciences". antweb.org. Retrieved 6 December 2010.
- "AntBlog, a website for studying ant colonies". antblog.co.uk. Retrieved 6 December 2010.
- Global Ant Project
- The super-nettles. A dermatologist's guide to ants-in-the-plants
- Ant Citizendium