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- Approximation theory: Sometimes it is not possible to get an exact solution to a problem, because this might take too long, or it may not be possible at all. Approximation theory looks at ways to get a solution which is close to the exact one, and which can be obtained faster.
- Probability and Statistics: How likely is it that something will happen? - If a coin is flipped 100 times, and lands heads up 53 times, is this coin good for games of chance, or should another one be taken?
- Optimization is about finding better solutions to problems.
- In ecology certain things are known about populations of animals or plants. This is usually called Population model. Biologists use them to tell how a population changes over time.