Temporal range: Early Cretaceous – Present, 100–0 Ma
|The sugarbag bee, Tetragonula carbonaria|
Apiformes (from Latin 'apis')
Bees are flying insects of the Hymenoptera, which also includes ants, wasps and sawflies. There are about 20,000 species of bees. Bees collect pollen from flowers. Bees can be found on all continents except Antarctica.
Bees fall into four groups:
- Honeybees, including the Africanized honeybee and Cornish Bee.
- Stingless bees
- Solitary bees
Evolution[change | change source]
The earliest animal-pollinated flowers were pollinated by insects such as big beetles, long before bees first appeared. Bees are different because they are specialized as pollination agents, with behavioral and physical modifications that make pollination easier. Bees are generally better at the task than other pollinating insects such as beetles, flies, butterflies and pollen wasps. The appearance of such floral specialists is believed to have driven the adaptive radiation of the angiosperms, and, in turn, the bees themselves.
Bees, like ants, are a specialized form of wasp. The ancestors of bees were wasps in a family which preyed on other insects. The switch from insect prey to pollen may have resulted from the capture of prey insects that were covered with pollen when they were fed to the wasp larvae. Similar behaviour could be switched to pollen collection. This same evolutionary scenario has occurred within the vespoid wasps, where the group known as "pollen wasps" also evolved from predatory ancestors.
A recently reported bee fossil, of the genus Melittosphex, is considered "an extinct lineage of pollen-collecting Apoidea, sister-group to the modern bees", and dates from the Lower Cretaceous (~100 mya). Features of its morphology place it clearly within the bees, but it retains two unmodified ancestral traits of the legs which betray its origin. The issue is still under debate, and the phylogenetic relationships among bee families are poorly understood.
Bee bodies[change | change source]
Like other insects, the body of a bee can be divided into three parts: the head, thorax (the middle part), and abdomen (the back part). Also like other insects, bees have three pairs of legs and two pairs of wings. Many bees are hairy and have yellow and black or orange and black warning colors.
Many bees have stings (like a hollow needle) on the rear of their bodies. If they get confused, angry, or scared they may sting, and inject venom, which hurts. Once a worker bee has stung it dies after a short while, but other types of bee and wasp can sting again. Some people are allergic to bee stings and can even die from them.
Social bees[change | change source]
There are three kinds of bees in a honey bee colony. A queen bee is the most important bee in the colony because she will lay the eggs. The queen bee only uses her stinger to sting other queen bees. The queen is usually the mother of the worker bees. She ate a special jelly called royal jelly from when she was young. Worker bees are females too, and they are the bees that collect pollen from flowers and will fight to protect the colony. Workers do a waggle dance to tell the others where they have found nectar; Karl von Frisch discovered this.
Drone bees (males) mate with the queen bee so that she can lay eggs. The only function of the male drone is to mate. They do no other work in the hive.
Related pages[change | change source]
References[change | change source]
|Wikispecies has information on: Hymenoptera.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bee.|
- James, Rosalind. "Bee pollination in agriculture". Retrieved 2009-09-05.
- Poinar G.O. & Danforth B.N. (October 2006). "A fossil bee from Early Cretaceous Burmese amber". Science 314 (5799): 614. doi:10.1126/science.1134103. PMID 17068254.
- Danforth BN, Sipes S, Fang J, Brady SG (October 2006). "The history of early bee diversification based on five genes plus morphology". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103 (41): 15118–23. doi:10.1073/pnas.0604033103. PMC 1586180. PMID 17015826.