Karl Gustav Jung
26 July 1875
|Died||6 June 1961 (aged 85)|
|Alma mater||University of Basel|
(m. 1903; died 1955)
|Awards||Honorary doctorates from |
Honorary Member of the Royal Society of Medicine
|Institutions||Burghölzli, Swiss Army (commissioned officer in World War I)|
|Doctoral advisor||Eugen Bleuler|
Carl Gustav Jung (26 July 1875 – 6 June 1961) was a Swiss psychiatrist and writer. He created many theories and ideas that are still used in psychology today. Psychology is the science of how people think and feel. His kind of psychology was called analytical psychology or Jungian Analysis.
Jung worked for about seven years with Sigmund Freud early in his career, but they fell out over a theory and from 1913 went their separate ways. This was because they disagreed about what motivated people and how to understand psychology.
Jung is famous for many things that he did for psychology. The work he did was important for measuring what kind of personality people have. The test called the Myers Briggs Type Indicator is based on his ideas. He is also famous because of his ideas about the ancients - people from many years ago.
Jung spent his life learning from observation and read exceptionally widely subjects as different as philosophy, science, anthropology, religion, literature, art and historical books relating to alchemy and the occult. He thought he could learn important things about psychology from them. He investigated them to find out what symbols they contained and how ancient people tried to make sense of the world around them. Alchemy is considered a precursor of modern chemistry.
He wrote in academic German, for doctors, psychologists and many other educated people. Most people who study Jung start with the book Man and His Symbols. It was written by colleagues of Jung so that people would be able understand him. Another useful introduction to his work is his Biography, Memories, Dreams, Reflections, written mostly by his secretary, Mrs Aniela Jaffe, and to which he contributed three or four chapters.
Biography[change | change source]
In popular culture[change | change source]
- The American rock band Tool was influenced by ideas of Jung for their album Ænima.
- The Lighthouse (2019) by American movie director Robert Eggers has many references to Jung.
Works[change | change source]
- Jung, C. G. 1953. Psychiatric Studies. The Collected Works of C. G. Jung Vol. 1. 1953, ed. Michael Fordham, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, and Princeton, N.J.: Bollingen. This was the first of 18 volumes plus separate bibliography and index. Not including revisions the set was completed in 1967.
References[change | change source]
- Jung, C.G. ( 1969). The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious, Collected Works, Volume 9, Part 1, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01833-2. par. 259
- Carl Jung (1959) . "Concerning the Archetypes, with Special Reference to the Anima Concept (Translated from Uber den Archetypus mit besonderer Berücksichtigung des Animabegriffes, Von den Wurzeln des Bewusstseins (Zurich: Rascher, 1954))". The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious, Collected Works, Volume 9, Part 1. Princeton University Press. p. 55, para. 113. ISBN 0-691-01833-2.
- Carl Jung (1973) . Adler, Gerhard; Jaffé, Aniela (eds.). C.G.Jung Letters. Vol. 1: 1906-1950. Translated by Hull, R. F. C. Princeton University Press. letter 28 February 1932, page 88. ISBN 0-691-09895-6.
Here are my answers to your questions about Goethe: My mother drew my attention to Faust when I was about 15 years old... Goethe was important to me because of Faust... In my circle, Faust is an object of lively interest. I once knew a wholesaler who always carried a pocket edition of Faust around with him.
- Carl Jung (1963). Memories, Dreams, Reflections. Random House. p. 101. ISBN 0-679-72395-1.
- Jung, C.G. (2014). Two Essays on Analytical Psychology. Routledge. p. 72. ISBN 9781317535362.
Old Heraclitus, who was indeed a very great sage, discovered the most marvellous of all psychological laws: the regulative function of opposites. He called it enantiodromia, a running contrariwise, by which he meant that sooner or later everything runs into its opposite.
- Paul C. Bishop (1 June 1996). "The use of Kant in Jung's early psychological works". Journal of European Studies. 26 (2): 107–140. doi:10.1177/004724419602600201. S2CID 161392112. Retrieved 28 November 2020.
- Zabriskie, Beverley (2005). "Synchronicity and the I Ching: Jung, Pauli, and the Chinese woman". The Journal of Analytical Psychology. 50 (2): 223–235. doi:10.1111/j.0021-8774.2005.00525.x. PMID 15817044.
- Memories, Dreams, Reflections. p. 68.
- Falzeder, Ernst; Beebe, John (eds.). The Question of Psychological Types: The Correspondence between C. G. Jung and Hans Schmid-Guisan, 1915-1916. p. 30.
- Polly Young-Eisendrath. The Cambridge Companion To Jung. Cambridge University, 2010. pp. 24–30.
- Carl Jung (1976). "II. Schiller's Ideas on the Type Problem". Collected Works of C.G. Jung, Volume 6: Psychological Types. Princeton University Press.
The service rendered by Schiller from our psychological point of view, as will become clear in the course of our exposition, is by no means inconsiderable, for he offers us carefully worked out lines of approach whose value we, psychologists, are only just beginning to appreciate.
- Eileen Rizo-Patron, Edward S. Casey, Jason M. Wirth (eds.), Adventures in Phenomenology: Gaston Bachelard, SUNY Press, 2017, p. 123 n. 11.
- Philip K. Dick (2011) . "Letter to Claudia Bush, November 26, 1974". In Jackson, Pamela; Lethem, Jonathan (eds.). The Exegesis of Philip K. Dick. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-547-54927-9.
- "What Is the Electra Complex?". 13 February 2019.
- Hesse, Hermann (1973) . "Addenda, April 1950, letter to Emanuel Maier from Hermann Hesse". C.G.Jung Letters. By Carl Jung. Adler, Gerhard; Jaffé, Aniela (eds.). Vol. 1: 1906-1950. Translated by Hull, R. F. C. Princeton University Press. p. 575. ISBN 0-691-09895-6.
In 1916 I underwent an analysis with a doctor friend of mine who was in part a pupil of Jung's. At that time I became acquainted with Jung's early work, the Wandlungen der Libido, which made an impression on me. I also read later books by Jung
- Erich Neumann (2014) . "Introduction". The Origins and History of Consciousness. Princeton University Press. p. xv. ISBN 978-0691163598.
The following attempt to outline the archetypal stages in the development of consciousness is based on modern depth psychology. It is an application of the analytical psychology of C. G. Jung, even where we endeavor to amplify this psychology, and even though we may speculatively overstep its boundaries.
- Jordan Peterson (1999). "Preface: Descensus ad Infernos". Maps of Meaning. Routledge. p. xvii. ISBN 978-0415922227.
I read something by Carl Jung, at about this time, that helped me understand what I was experiencing. It was Jung who formulated the concept of persona: the mask that "feigned individuality." Adoption of such a mask, according to Jung, allowed each of us- and those around us - to believe that we were authentic. Jung said...
- "Jean Piaget Biography". 10 July 2020.
- Kelland, Mark D. (17 August 2020). "Carl Rogers and Humanistic Psychology".