|Sir Christopher Michael Wren F.R.S.|
Sir Christopher Wren in Godfrey Kneller's 1711 portrait
20 October 1632|
East Knoyle, Wiltshire, England
|Died||25 February 1723
|Fields||Architecture, physics, astronomy, and mathematics|
|Alma mater||Wadham College, University of Oxford|
|Academic advisors||William Oughtred|
|Known for||Designer of 54 churches including St Paul's Cathedral, as well as many secular buildings of note in London after the Great Fire|
Sir Christopher Wren (20 October 1632 – 25 February 1723) was a 17th century English architect, designer, astronomer and geometer. He designed 51 churches in London after the Great Fire of London, including St. Paul's Cathedral.
Wren was born on 20 October 1632 in East Knoyle, Wiltshire, England. He was educated at Westminster School and Oxford University. He showed an early talent for mathematics. He invented an instrument for writing in the dark and a pneumatic machine. In 1657, Wren was appointed professor of astronomy at Gresham College in London. Four years later, he was appointed professor of astronomy at Oxford. In 1662, he was one of the founding members of the Royal Society.
Wren developed an interest in architecture following his studies of physics and engineering. In 1664 and 1665, Wren designed the Sheldonian Theatre in Oxford and a chapel for Pembroke College, Cambridge. Thereafter, architecture became his main focus. In 1665, Wren visited Paris. He studied French and Italian baroque styles.
In 1666, the Great Fire of London destroyed much of the medieval city. Wren produced ambitious plans for rebuilding the whole area. His plans were rejected, partly because property owners insisted on keeping the sites of their destroyed buildings. Wren did design 51 new city churches, including a new St Paul's Cathedral. In 1669, he was appointed surveyor of the royal works. This gave him control of all government building in the country. He was knighted in 1673.
In 1675, Wren was commissioned to design the Royal Observatory at Greenwich. In 1682, he designed a hospital in Chelsea, London for retired soldiers, and in 1696 a hospital for sailors in Greenwich. Other buildings include Trinity College Library in Cambridge (1677 - 1692), and the facade of Hampton Court Palace (1689 - 1694). Wren often worked with the same team of craftsmen, including master plasterer John Groves and wood carver Grinling Gibbons.
Gallery of architectural work[change | change source]
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