The Middle Ages were a period of about a thousand years in European history. They started around the year 476 CE when the Western Roman Empire ended, and continued until around the time Christopher Columbus arrived in the New World in 1492. The 'Middle Ages' are called this because it is the time between the fall of Imperial Rome and the beginning of the Early modern Europe. This period of time is also known as the Medieval Age, the Dark Ages (due to the lost technology of the Roman empire), or the Age of Faith (because of the rise of Christianity and Islam). When used narrowly, the term "Dark Ages" refer only to a very early period, from 476 to 800 CE (when Charlemagne became Holy Roman Emperor). Because few could write, less is known about the Dark Ages than about earlier times.
The fall of the Roman Empire, and the invasions of barbarian tribes, devastated European towns and cities and their inhabitants. The Dark Ages are given this name because Europe was in disarray in comparison to the orderliness of classical antiquity and life was short and poor. Much of the knowledge that the Romans used (science, technology, medicine, and literature) was lost. The Dark Ages period was marked by mass migrations, wars and plagues. This lasted some 300 years until the development of feudalism partly diminished the continuous violence. Emperor Charlemagne was crowned in 800 CE, and he promoted order, education and civilization. Europe began to slowly regain what was lost during those centuries. The Late Middle Age was a tough period due to the Bubonic Plague and more wars which killed millions of people in Europe and Asia.
During the Middle Ages, Europe changed as the remains of the great Western Roman Empire slowly became independent, unified nation states such as England, Scotland, France (Which evolved from the realm of the Franks), Hungary, Spain, Portugal, Poland, Lithuania, Denmark and Norway.
Byzantium: The other side of Rome[change | change source]
Meanwhile, the remains of Eastern Rome had become the Byzantine Empire, which was started by Roman emperor Constantine in 330 CE, and likewise had a capital city named Constantinople. The Byzantine empire controlled Asia Minor and Northern Africa, and sometimes Southern Spain and southern Italy, but its lands were slowly eaten away by enemies like the Turks and the Franks.
As a walled city on a peninsula the city of Constantinople was difficult to attack. The Ottoman Turks eventually seized Constantinople in 1453. They called the city by its present-day name, Istanbul. The Fall of Constantinople is sometimes called the end of the Middle Ages.
Islam and its golden age[change | change source]
Islam was founded in the early 7th century by the Islamic prophet, Muhammad. Muslims believe that the Qur'an is God's ultimate revelation to mankind. Islam quickly conquered much of the Middle East and North Africa and spread along the major trade routes of the old world, finding appeal with traders and travellers.
The Islamic religion soon split; between the Sunni Muslims and the Shi'a. The Sunni religion is the majority (roughly 85% of Muslims belong to this sect), Most Shi'a live in modern-day Iran and Iraq. The Sunni-Shi'a split has been compared to the Protestant Reformation within the Christian church much later in 1517.
Muslim conquests soon took formerly Christian territories in modern day Iraq, Syria, Egypt, North Africa and Spain. The Christians were able to keep France and other European countries. The Muslim Ottoman Empire eventually conquered parts of eastern Europe. Many Muslim states held of vast areas of land; making them superpowers of the Middle Ages.
During the much of the Middle Ages, Muslims achieved what is remembered as a golden age of knowledge. During these times of strife in Europe, many Muslim caliphs and Sultans gathered the ancient texts of great classical empires: such as the Caliphs of Andalusian Cordoba with Roman texts or the Anatolian Seljuk Sultans with Greek texts) and attempted to re-integrate this knowledge into their present time. During this time a Persian Muslim helped develop progress in algebra. The golden age of Islam ended with the Mongol invasions in the mid 13th century. 
Asian Trade and the Bubonic Plague[change | change source]
During the Middle Ages trade between countries became much more common. It was mostly through the Middle Eastern / Asian trade route known as the Silk Road. Arabs served as the middle men in international trade. Trade in this time was based on how valuable the item was. The items that had higher value, and low weight, travelled the farthest (gold, silk, etc...), and items that were heavier and worth less would travel mostly short distances. Food, for example, would mostly travel only within a few villages.
During the high Middle Ages, wealth began to return and consumers began to demand luxuries again. Silk, porcelain, spices, incense, gold and gems, all went thousands of miles across deserts, mountains and plains. Glass was in turn imported from Europe to Asia.
Trade was greatly interrupted several times during the Crusades (1095-1291) due to wars between Muslims and Christians, and because of Mongolian Invasions, and later because of the Black Plague. It is thought that the Mongols brought the Plague with them from Asia, and devastated the world population from 1347-1351. Almost a third of the world's population was killed by the plague at this time, although the Americas were not touched by the disease at all.
Buddhism in the Middle Ages[change | change source]
Buddhism is a non-theistic religion (in other words, Buddhists don't believe in a god) that is based on philosophy. It began in India but is almost entirely gone from that area now. Muslim invaders in India drove out this system of beliefs, more or less forcing Buddhism to flee East (where it eventually took strong roots in China).
The Mongolian Empire and Chinese Exploration[change | change source]
During the Middle Ages the Mongols created the world's largest contiguous empire, controlling much of Asia, the Middle East, and far eastern Europe. The Mongol Empire was so large and powerful that its strength imposed what was later called the Pax Mongolica, similar to the Roman Pax Romana (pax is Latin for peace). With no war inside the Mongol Empire; international trade and diplomacy along the Silk Road greatly expanded.
Mongol leader Genghis Khan built an empire that was so large, it collapsed under its own size (much like Alexander the Great's empire did) around the time of the Khan's death in 1227. The former Mongol empire was split four ways, leaving the Chinese to become the dominant power in the Far East once again. Later, the Chinese took control of northern China again under the Yuan Dynasty.
Around 1405, A Chinese admiral named Zheng He went to explore the world. His fleet of 300 'treasure ships' explored great areas of the Eastern world, and were many times larger than anything the Europeans had built. (A Zheng He Treasure ship was wider than Columbus' ship 'Santa Maria' was long).
Late Middle Ages[change | change source]
The Late Middle Ages were the last two centuries of the Middle Ages, from around 1291 (when the crusades ended) to 1492 (Columbus voyage to the new world). During this period the gun changed war and aristocracy and feudalism became less important. States founded standing armies. Before, armies were only formed when there was a war. [clarify] Technology, economy and science developed. Cities were founded and existing cities grew larger and richer. France and England fought the Hundred Years' War. The Grand Duchy of Moscow regained its independence from the Mongols just like the Chinese, and under the name "Russia" became the most important state in Eastern Europe. A Plague devasted in Eurasia and North Africa that killed 1/3 to 3/4 of the population (75-200 million people dead). This was one of the deadliest pandemic in the history.
In the 15th century, the Ottoman Turks conquered the Byzantine Empire. That event cut off the Silk Road, and the Europeans had to find new trade routes. In turn, the Muslims were driven off Spain. This event triggered the Age of Discovery during the Renaissance.
In the late Middle Ages the Frisians rebelled against the Habsburgians from 1515 until 1523. They were lead into battle by the legendary warriors and warlords Donia and Jelckama. They were eventually defeated and beheaded in Leeuwarden.