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The Protestant Reformation is a term used to describe a series of events that happened in the 16th century in the Christian Church. Because of corruption in the Catholic Church, some people saw a need to change the way it worked.
People like Erasmus, Thomas More, Huldrych Zwingli, Martin Luther and John Calvin saw this corruption, and acted to stop it. This led to a schism in the church, into Catholics and a number of Protestant churches.
Martin Luther was the first person to translate the Bible into German. He could print copies, because Johannes Gutenberg had invented a way to print a number of copies (approximately 50-100) at a relatively low price. The Protestant reformation triggered the Catholic Counter-Reformation.
In general, Martin Luther's posting of the 95 theses at Wittenberg is seen as the start of the Protestant Reformation. This happened in the year 1517. The Peace of Westphalia of 1648 recognised Protestants, and is generally seen as the end of this process.
Causes[change | change source]
In the beginning of the 16th century, many events occurred that led to the protestant reformation. Clergy abuse caused people to begin criticizing the Catholic Church.
The central points of criticism were the following:
The split was over doctrine not corruption. The doctrines at question were, Indulgences and Justification... clergy corruption was tangential not the major reason.
- The church sold tickets of indulgences (forgiveness) from sins for money. This suggested that the rich could buy their way into Heaven while the poor could not - quite the opposite of what the Bible says. (See Gospel of Matthew 19:24)
- Many people did not understand the sermon, because it was in Latin. The sermon is that part of the service where the priest teaches people things from the Bible. Because of this, ordinary people did not know very much about Christianity.
- Religious posts were often sold to whoever was willing to pay the most money for them. See Simony. This meant many priests did not know much about Christianity. So they told the people many different things. Some of the things had little to do with what was written in the Bible.
The greed and scandalous lives of the clergy had created a split between them and the peasants. Furthermore, the clergy did not respond to the population needs because they did not speak the local language, or live in their own diocese. The papacy lost prestige. The recent invention of the printing press helped spread awareness of the Church's abuses, and coordinate a response.
In 1515, the pope started a new indulgence campaign to raise money for the rebuilding of St. Peter's Basilica, a church in Rome. This was the last straw for Martin Luther, a Catholic monk from Germany. On October 31, 1517, he sent his 95 theses to the local archbishop in protest. He may also have nailed a copy to the door of the Wittenberg chapel. Luther, who appeared as an enemy of the pope, was excommunicated. In the beginning, Luther had not planned to separate from the Catholic Church or to create a new religion; he wanted to reform the Catholic Church.
Consequences[change | change source]
In 1524-1525, millions of peasants rebelled against the nobles in the name of equality of the humanity in front at God. Many countries in Europe followed the trend of Protestant reformation and Europe was divided by denomination. This brought religious wars such as the French Wars of Religion. For a short time, Protestant and Catholic had managed to live with one another and with the Peace of Augsburg in 1555.  This Peace recognized the confessional division of the German states and gave the right to Protestants to practice their religion.
The Pope reestablished the inquisition to combat heresy. The Catholic Church responded to the protestant reformation with the counter-reformation. Force was not entirely successful, so the Pope created new religious orders like the Jesuits. These new religious orders were charged to combat Protestantism while educating the population to Catholicism. The Pope made the Index Librorum Prohibitorum, a list of banned books. It had a big influence in its first centuries and was ended the 1960s. The Catholic Church used baroque art to touch the religious feeling of the faithful and bring them to the Catholic religion.
Impact[change | change source]
Protestant denominations have multiplied in different forms, especially in Protestant countries. Catholic countries such as Spain and Mexico for a long time forbade Protestants to immigrate, and Protestant countries sometimes forbade Catholics. Protestants are influential in the United States and the English Canada. After the Seven Years War the British imposed the Quebec Act granting freedom of religion in Quebec, hoping it would become Protestant. Protestant colonists saw this as one of the Intolerable Acts. In later centuries, many Protestant churches were established in the province of Quebec despite Britain's failure to do so.
References[change | change source]
- "The Reformation". History Channel website: A&E Television network. 1996–2014. Retrieved 11 February 2014.
- "Les Réformes protestantes" (in French). Département de philosophie, UQÀM. 2010. Retrieved 11 February 2014.
- LAVILLE, Christian, SIMARD, Marc. Histoire de la civilisation occidentale, Ville Saint-Laurent, Erpi, 3e edition, 2010, p. 175 to 191