Rome

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Rome
Roma
Comune
Roma Capitale
Views of Rome, from top left clockwise: the Colosseum, the Monument to Vittorio Emanuele II, the Castel Sant'Angelo, an aerial view of the city's historic centre, the dome of St. Peter's Basilica, the Trevi Fountain, the Piazza della Repubblica.
Views of Rome, from top left clockwise: the Colosseum, the Monument to Vittorio Emanuele II, the Castel Sant'Angelo, an aerial view of the city's historic centre, the dome of St. Peter's Basilica, the Trevi Fountain, the Piazza della Repubblica.
Flag of Rome
Flag
Nickname(s): The Eternal City, Caput Mundi,
The City of Seven Hills
Rome is located in Italy
Rome
Rome
Location of Rome in Italy
Coordinates: Coordinates: 41°54′N 12°30′E / 41.900°N 12.500°E / 41.900; 12.500
Country Italy
Region Lazio
Province / Metropolitan city Rome (RM)
Government
 • Mayor Virginia Raggi (Five Star Movement)
Area
 • Total 1,285.31 km2 (496.26 sq mi)
Elevation 20 m (70 ft)
Population (September 2011)[1][2]
 • Total 2,777,979 Increase
Demonym(s) Roman
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 00100; 00121 to 00199
Dialing code 06
Patron saint Saint Peter and Saint Paul St.Lawrence
Saint day 29 June
Website Official website
Via del Corso, the main street of the city

Rome is the capital city of Italy. It is also the capital and largest city in the region of Lazio, and the geographical region of Latium. It is on the Tiber River and has 2.8 million people. An estimate by the OECD put the number of people of the city area of Rome at 3.47 million.[3] When the Roman Empire was new, Rome was called the Eternal City because it was already very old.

Rome is well known for being the home of the Catholic Church, including its leader, the Pope. He lives in the Vatican City, which is an enclave in the north-west part of Rome.

History[change | change source]

Nothing is known for sure about the founding of ancient Rome; it is prehistoric. The myth of Romulus and Remus is often told. They were supposedly raised by a she-wolf. Romulus killed Remus, and became the first king of Rome, for some time Romulus ruled alongside a Sabine King a neighbouring tribe. There is no historical evidence of this, but the story is popular. Numa Pompilius was the next king.

With the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom began the Republican era. The new Roman Republic fought and conquered the people around it. In 390 BC, the town was invaded by Gauls. Between the third and second century BC, Rome fought against the rival Carthage. The Roman army captured and destroyed Carthage.

Only with Julius Caesar in the first century BC, did the city began to grow significantly, especially toward the Campo Marzio, at the north of Capitoline Hill, and its domain was extended to Britannia. Caesar was never crowned emperor, a title which, however, fell to his adopted son Octavian who took the throne under the name of Augustus.

Augustus "found a city of bricks and left it of marble". With him Rome reached one million inhabitants and this was the first time in History that has happened in the world. Later emperors also added new monuments, temples and triumphal arches to ancient Rome.

With the decline of the Roman Empire, the city declined in importance and fell into ruin. Pope Gregory I created major reforms for the people. The city was ruled by the pope, and soon also became the capital of a state, the Papal States, which remained active until the nineteenth century. Popes, like the emperors, became richer over the centuries and the same happened with the counties ruled by them.

Rome experienced a second "rebirth" in importance during the Italian Renaissance. The city of monuments and churches was called the "capital of Christendom", as the home of the Basilica di San Giovanni Lateran, the most important church of the world. The masterpieces of the Renaissance geniuses, like Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, embellished the city.

The power of the Pope lessened along with its state.

But with the Italian Risorgimento Rome experienced a third "rebirth". On 20 September 1870, Garibaldi's army, which had the task of uniting all of Italy under the crown of Savoy, entered the city through a breach opened in the walls at Porta Pia and, the same year, Rome became the capital of the new Italian state. In a few decades Rome grew to be one of the most important capitals of Europe and of the world: in 1936 it was the capital of the Italian Empire, even if for a few years because of the second world war.

Today, Rome is a major European political and cultural center, containing the headquarters of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. There are also numerous museums, basilicas and palaces, such as the Colosseum, and, in the Vatican City, St. Peter's Basilica, a brilliant example of the architecture of the Renaissance which can be found all over Rome.

Actually Rome is one of the most visited city in the world tourism.

Geography[change | change source]

Rome stands on seven hills, with an area of 1285.31 kilometers². The city is crossed by two rivers: the Tiber, which runs from east to west, and l'Aniene, which runs from north-east to north – within the city, it flows into the Tiber. Rome was built on Sun Hill, later named Palatine. It grew and is now built on seven principal hills:

Climate[change | change source]

Rome has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Csa in the Köppen climate classification).

Education[change | change source]

The children in Rome have to go to school from the age of six until 16.[4] This takes them to the middle of high school (Scuola secondaria di secondo grado). Rome has the biggest university in Italy and it is named University of Rome. It was created in 1303. About 200,000 students go to study at this university.

Transport[change | change source]

Rome has an airport, which is named Leonardo da Vinci International Airport (IATA: FCO). There is a fast train that goes between the airport and the city center, the Leonardo Express, and many commuter railway lines to the nearby suburbs, along with long-distance trains to other cities in Italy. In the city itself, public transport consists of three metro lines (A, B, and C), six tram lines, and many bus routes.

Buildings[change | change source]

Related pages[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

Other websites[change | change source]

A panoramic view of Rome from an aeroplane