Berlin

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Berlin
Nr 2 Berlin Panorama von der Siegessäule 2021.jpg
Reichstag Berlin Germany.jpg
Brandenburger Tor abends.jpg
Hochhäuser am Potsdamer Platz, Berlin, 160606, ako.jpg
Panorama Gendarmenmarkt-Berlin-Huntke-2008.jpg
From top, left to right:Berlin center, Reichstag; Brandenburg Gate; Potsdamer Platz; Gendarmenmarkt
Flag of Berlin
Coat of arms of Berlin
Berlin is located in Europe
Berlin
Berlin
Location within Germany
Berlin is located in Germany
Berlin
Berlin
Berlin (Germany)
Berlin is located in Earth
Berlin
Berlin
Berlin (Earth)
Coordinates: 52°31′12″N 13°24′18″E / 52.52000°N 13.40500°E / 52.52000; 13.40500Coordinates: 52°31′12″N 13°24′18″E / 52.52000°N 13.40500°E / 52.52000; 13.40500
Country Germany
StateBerlin
Government
 • BodyAbgeordnetenhaus of Berlin
 • Governing MayorFranziska Giffey (SPD)
Area
 • City/State891.7 km2 (344.3 sq mi)
Elevation
34 m (112 ft)
Population
 (31 December 2019)[2]
 • City/State3,769,495
 • Urban4,473,101
 • Metro6,144,600
DemonymsBerliner(s) (English)
Time zoneUTC+01:00 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+02:00 (CEST)
Area code(s)030
GeocodeNUTS Region: DE3
GDP (nominal)€155 billion (2020)[5]
GDP per capita€41,000 (2020)
GeoTLD.berlin
HDI (2018)0.950[6] very high
Websitewww.berlin.de/en/

Berlin (/bɜːrˈlɪn/; German: [bɛʁˈliːn] (About this soundlisten)[7]) is the capital city of Germany. It is the largest city in the European Union by population, with around 3.7 million people in 2020.[8] Berlin residents come from about 190 different countries.

The city is in the eastern part of Germany in Central Europe and is surrounded by many forests and lakes. Berlin has an area of 891 km2 (344.02 sq mi). The rivers Havel, Dahme and Spree run through Berlin. It has a temperate climate.

Berlin is home to many famous buildings and monuments, like the Siegessäule, the Brandenburger Tor, the Reichstag and the boulevard Unter den Linden. On the boulevard is the Humboldt University. The city has many nightlife options.

Berlin is an important city for the history of Germany. The King of Prussia and the Emperor of Germany lived in Berlin. The government of Germany was in Berlin for many years. Bombs destroyed many buildings in the city in World War Two. The city was split into West Berlin and East Berlin after World War Two. After the Berlin Wall was built in 1961 very few people were allowed to cross from East Berlin into West Berlin. The wall divided the city until 1989 when the East German government decided to allow anyone to cross, and people decided to tear down the wall.

Berlin is a world city of culture, start ups, politics, media and science.[9] There are a lot of technology companies in the city. They are important for the city's economy. Many planes and trains travel to and from Berlin because the city is an important place for tourism and business.[10]

History[change | change source]

  • 1244 The first writings about a place called Berlin.
  • 1451 The Hohenzollern family moved to Berlin as the place to rule their country
  • 1618 – 48 After the Thirty Years' War in Germany, the number of people that lived in Berlin dropped to only 6000.
  • 1701 Berlin became capital of Prussia.
  • 1709 Berlin and its neighbor city Cölln (not Köln/Cologne) are combined to form the new Berlin.
  • 1806 The army of Napoleon Bonaparte moved into Berlin.
  • 1871 Berlin became capital of the German Empire.
  • 1920 The Old Berlin and some neighbour towns are combined into "Greater Berlin" (Groß-Berlin).
  • 1945 The town is divided into four sectors, used by the allies of World War II. There is a Soviet Sector, an American Sector, a British Sector and a French Sector.
  • 1949 After foundation of the two Germanies, the town is still divided. There is now West Berlin and East Berlin.
  • 1961 The Berlin Wall was built by the communist government of East Germany between the two halves of Berlin.
  • 1990 After German reunification, the Berlin Wall is torn down, and there is only one Berlin again. The new Berlin becomes the capital of one Germany.
  • 2001 23 boroughs of Berlin were changed into 12
  • 2006 FIFA World Cup Final held at Olympiastadion

People[change | change source]

Berliners at lake Schlachtensee

In 2018, Berlin had 3.75 million registered inhabitants in an area of 891.1 km2 (344.1 sq mi). The city's population density was 4,206 inhabitants per km2. Berlin is the most populous city in Germany an the European Union. The entire Berlin-Brandenburg capital region has a population of more than 6 million in an area of 30,546 km2 (11,794 sq mi).[11][1] More than 2.0 million households were counted in the city. Around 60 percent of them were single-person households.

There are more than 20 communities with a population of at least 10,000 people in 2019, including German, Turkish, Polish, Syrian, Italian, Bulgarian, Russian, Lebanese, Palestinian, Serbian, Bosnian, Vietnamese, American, Romanian, Croatian, Chinese, Austrian, Ukrainian, French, British, Spanish, Israeli, Indian and Iranian communities.

In 2019, there were 777,345 registered residents of foreign nationality and another 542,975 German citizens with a "migration background",[2] meaning they or one of their parents immigrated to Germany after 1955. Berlin residents originate from about 190 different countries.[12]

Geography[change | change source]

Berlin is in northeastern Germany, in an area of low-lying marshy woodlands with a mainly flat terrain. It is part of the Northern European Plain. The river Spree and Havel are the two main rivers in the city. In Spandau, a borough in the west of Berlin, the Spree empties into the river Havel, which flows from north to south through western Berlin. The largest lakes being the Tegeler See, the Großer Wannsee and the Großer Müggelsee.[13]

The Arkenberge hills in Pankow at 122 meters (400 ft) elevation are the highest point in Berlin. The Müggelberge (mountains) at 114.7 meters (376 ft) elevation is the highest natural point and the lowest is the Spektesee in Spandau, at 28.1 meters (92 ft) elevation.[14]

Boroughs[change | change source]

Map of the berlin boroughs
  1. Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf
  2. Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg
  3. Lichtenberg-Hohenschönhausen
  4. Marzahn-Hellersdorf
  5. Mitte (Central)
  6. Neukölln
  7. Pankow
  8. Reinickendorf
  9. Spandau
  10. Steglitz-Zehlendorf
  11. Tempelhof-Schöneberg
  12. Treptow-Köpenick

Education[change | change source]

Berlin is one of the most renowned centers of higher education and research in Germany and the world. Historically, 57 Nobel Prize winners are affiliated with the Berlin-based universities.

The city has four universities and more than 40 private, professional, and technical colleges in 2020.[15] Around 200.000 students were enrolled in 2019. Among them around 20% have an international background.

The three largest universities combined have approximately 110,000 students. There are the Free University of Berlin (Free University of Berlin, FU Berlin) with about 35,000 students, the Humboldt University of Berlin (HU Berlin) with 40,000 students, and the Technical University of Berlin (TU Berlin) with 35,000 students. The Charité Medical School has around 9,000 students. The Berlin University of the Arts (UdK) has about 4,000 students and the ESMT Berlin is a leading business schools in Germany. The Berlin School of Economics and Law (HWR) has an enrollment of about 11,000 students, the Berlin University of Applied Sciences and Technology (BHT) of about 12,000 students, and the Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft (University of Applied Sciences for Engineering and Economics, HTW) of about 14,000 students.

Culture[change | change source]

Show at the Friedrichstadt-Palast

Berlin is famous for its numerous cultural institutions, many of which enjoy international reputation.[16] It is a trendsetting city.[17] Young people, creatives and entrepreneurs continue to settle in the city and make Berlin a popular entertainment center in the world.[18]

Landmarks[change | change source]

Cuisine[change | change source]

The Berlin cuisine and culinary offerings vary greatly. 23 restaurants in Berlin have been awarded one or more Michelin stars in 2021, which ranks the city at the top for the number of restaurants in Germany.[19]

Many local foods originated from north German culinary traditions and include rustic and hearty dishes with pork, goose, fish, peas, beans, cucumbers, or potatoes. Typical Berliner fare include popular street food like the Currywurst Buletten (meat balls) and the Berliner doughnut, known in Berlin as Pfannkuchen.[20][21] German bakeries offering a variety of breads and pastries are widespread. One of Europe's largest delicatessen market is found at the department store KaDeWe. Among the world's largest chocolate stores is Fassbender & Rausch.[22]

Berlin is also home to a diverse gastronomy scene reflecting the immigrant history of the city. Immigrants brought their culinary traditions to the city, such as the modern fast-food version of the doner kebab. Asian cuisine like Chinese, Vietnamese, Thai, Indian, Korean, and Japanese restaurants, as well as Spanish tapas bars, Italian, and Greek cuisine, can be found in many parts of the city.

Economy[change | change source]

Berlin is recognized for its creative industries and startups.[23]

In 2018, the GDP of Berlin totaled €147 billion.[1] The city is the largest metropolitan economy in Germany and the third largest in the European Union. Berlin's economy is dominated by the service sector, with around 85% of all companies doing business in services. In 2019, the total labor force in Berlin was about 2.0 million.

Important economic sectors in Berlin include life sciences, transportation, information and communication technologies, media and music, advertising and design, biotechnology, environmental services, construction, e-commerce, retail, hotel business, and medical engineering.[24]

Research and development are important for the city.[25] Berlin is part of the Eurozone.

Sister cities[change | change source]

Berlin has partnerships with 17 cities.[26] Each of the 12 boroughs also has their sister cities, sometimes called twin cities.

References[change | change source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 "Amt für Statistik Berlin Brandenburg – Statistiken". Amt für Statistik Berlin-Brandenburg (in German). Archived from the original on 8 March 2021. Retrieved 2 May 2019.
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Statistischer Bericht: Einwohnerinnen und Einwohner im Land Berlin am 31. Dezember 2019" [Statistical Report: Residents in the state of Berlin on 31 December 2019] (PDF). Amt für Statistik Berlin-Brandenburg (in German). pp. 4, 10, 13, 18–22. Retrieved 8 April 2020.
  3. citypopulation.de quoting Federal Statistics Office. "Germany: Urban Areas". Archived from the original on 3 June 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2021.
  4. "Bevölkerungsanstieg in Berlin und Brandenburg mit nachlassender Dynamik" (PDF). statistik-berlin-brandenburg.de. Amt für Statistik Berlin-Brandenburg. 8 February 2019. Retrieved 24 November 2019.[permanent dead link]
  5. "Bruttoinlandsprodukt – in jeweiligen Preisen – 1991 bis 2020". www.statistikportal.de.
  6. "Sub-national HDI – Area Database – Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
  7. Kleiner, Stefan; Knöbl, Ralf; Mangold, Max (2015). Das Aussprachewörterbuch (7th ed.). Berlin: Duden. p. 229. ISBN 978-3-411-04067-4.
  8. "Amt für Statistik Berlin Brandenburg - Statistiken". www.statistik-berlin-brandenburg.de. Archived from the original on 26 December 2018. Retrieved 25 June 2017.
  9. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 June 2014. Retrieved 25 June 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  10. "Berlin Beats Rome as Tourist Attraction as Hordes Descend". Bloomberg.com. Archived from the original on 24 November 2017. Retrieved 25 June 2017.
  11. "Initiativkreis Europäische Metropolregionen in Deutschland: Berlin-Brandenburg". www.deutsche-metropolregionen.org. 31 August 2020.
  12. "457 000 Ausländer aus 190 Staaten in Berlin gemeldet" [457,000 Foreigners from 190 Countries Registered in Berlin]. Berliner Morgenpost (in German). 5 February 2011. Retrieved 28 April 2019.
  13. "Satellite Image Berlin". Google Maps. Retrieved 18 August 2008.
  14. Jacobs, Stefan (22 February 2015). "Der höchste Berg von Berlin ist neuerdings in Pankow" [The tallest mountain in Berlin is now in Pankow]. Der Tagesspiegel (in German). Retrieved 22 February 2015.
  15. "Metropolis of Sciences". Berlin Partner GmbH. Archived from the original on 24 April 2008. Retrieved 19 August 2008.
  16. "World Heritage Site Palaces and Parks of Potsdam and Berlin". UNESCO. Retrieved 19 August 2008.
  17. "Hub Culture's 2009 Zeitgeist Ranking". Hub Culture. Archived from the original on 31 March 2009. Retrieved 30 April 2009.
  18. Boston, Nicholas (10 September 2006). "A New Williamsburg! Berlin's Expats Go Bezirk". The New York Observer. Retrieved 17 August 2008. See also: "Die Kunstszene". Deutschland Online (in German). Archived from the original on 11 December 2007. Retrieved 19 August 2008. and "Culture of Berlin". Metropolis. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 19 August 2008.
  19. "MICHELIN Guide, Germany, Berlin Restaurants". MICHELIN Guide. Retrieved 15 November 2021.
  20. Berlin German Foods
  21. Paterson, Tony (15 August 2009). "Spicy sausage that is worthy of a shrine in Berlin". The Independent. Archived from the original on 22 March 2019. Retrieved 24 August 2017.
  22. "Chocolate Heaven at Fassbender & Rausch". Luxe Adventure Traveler. 2013. Retrieved 1 March 2016.
  23. "Berlin – Europe's New Start-Up Capital". Credit Suisse. Archived from the original on 31 March 2016. Retrieved 27 March 2016.
  24. "Poor but sexy". The Economist. 21 September 2006. Retrieved 19 August 2008.
  25. "Die kleine Berlin Statistik" (PDF). berlin.de. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
  26. "Berlin's international city relations". Der Regierende Bürgermeister von Berlin, Referat IV B. Archived from the original on 22 August 2008. Retrieved 9 November 2007.

Other websites[change | change source]