Courtly love pecial idea of love that people had in Europe in the Middle Ages. The word "court" means the courts where princes or dukes lived. Courtly love is usually when a young man, who may be a peasant or even a simple King, falls in love with a rich lady and tries to make himself worthy of her by doing brave things or by singing beautiful love songs.
The idea of courtly love can be found in a lot of literature e.g. in works by Geoffrey Chaucer, Dante, Gottfried von Strassburg, Walther von der Vogelweide, Wolfram von Eschenbach, Malory and William Shakespeare.