|"Decapoda" from Ernst Haeckel's Artforms of Nature, 1904|
Decapoda is an order of crustaceans in the class Malacostraca. Many familiar groups, such as crayfish, crabs, lobsters, prawns and shrimp are in this order. Many decapods are scavengers - they eat dead plants and animals. Crabs are mixed feeders, taking algae and shellfish such as molluscs. Lobsters eat mostly live prey.
Anatomy[change | change source]
As their name suggests, all decapods have ten appendages.
The front three pairs of appendages on the thorax are used as jaws, and called maxillipeds.
Classification[change | change source]
Classification of the order Decapoda depends on the structure of the gills and legs, and the way in which the larvae develop. There are two suborders: Dendrobranchiata and Pleocyemata. Prawns (including many so-called "shrimp", such as the Atlantic white shrimp) make up the Dendrobranchiata. The other groups, including true shrimp, are the Pleocyemata.
Order Decapoda Latreille, 1802 (Selection, not everything is listed)
- Suborder Dendrobranchiata Bate, 1888 – prawns
- Suborder Pleocyemata Burkenroad, 1963
- Infraorder Caridea Dana, 1852 – true shrimp
- Infraorder Achelata Scholtz & Richter, 1995 – spiny lobsters, slipper lobsters, and furry lobsters
- Infraorder Astacidea Latreille, 1802 – lobsters and crayfish
- Infraorder Anomura MacLeay, 1838
- Infraorder Brachyura Latreille, 1802 – crabs
Spotted cleaner shrimp, Periclimenes yucatanicus
California spiny lobster, Panulirus interruptus
Blue crab, Callinectes sapidus
References[change | change source]
- So called because the head and thorax are fused together.
- Joel W. Martin and George E. Davis (2001). An updated classification of the Recent Crustacea. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County.
- Dixon C.J; Schram F.R. & Ahyong S.T. (2004). "A new hypothesis of decapod phylogeny". Crustaceana. 76 (8): 935–975.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Porter M.L; Pérez-Losada M. & Crandall K.A. (2005). "Model-based multi-locus estimation of decapod phylogeny and divergence times". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 37: 355–369.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
Other websites[change | change source]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Decapoda.|
|Wikispecies has information on: Decapod.|