Ernst Haeckel

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Ernst Haeckel

Haekel as a young man
Born 16 February 1834(1834-02-16)
Died 9 August 1919(1919-08-09) (aged 85)
Nationality Prussia
Ethnicity German
Notable awards Linnean Medal (1894)
Darwin–Wallace Medal (Silver, 1908)
Author abbreviation (zoology) Haeckel
Sea anemones from Ernst Haeckel's Kunstformen der Natur (Art forms of Nature) of 1904
from Generelle Morphologie der Organismen (1866) with the three branches Plantae, Protista, Animalia

Ernst Haeckel (Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel, 16 February 1834 – 9 August 1919) was an influential German zoologist, naturalist, and artist.[1] He was also a philosopher and physician, but in those fields he is not regarded as particularly notable.[2]

Haekel was professor of comparative anatomy at the University of Jena, where he worked for 47 years, from 1862 to 1909. Haekel discovered, described and named thousands of new species, mapped a tree of life relating all life forms.[3] He coined many terms in biology, including ecology, phylum, phylogeny, stem cell, and the kingdom Protista. Haeckel promoted and popularised Charles Darwin's work in Germany and developed the controversial recapitulation theory ("ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny"). This clained that an individual organism's biological development, or ontogeny, parallels and summarises its species' evolutionary development.[4]

The published artwork of Haeckel includes over 100 detailed, multi-colour illustrations of animals and sea creatures.[5] As a philosopher, Ernst Haeckel wrote Die Welträtsel (1895–1899, The Riddle of the Universe, 1901), and Freedom in Science and Teaching to support teaching evolution.[6]

Books[change | change source]

Haekel wrote many books, some of them in multi-volumes. Among the most notable are:

  • Die Radiolarien, four parts in five volumes. 1862–1888. (Rhizopoda Radiaria) Eine Monographie. Georg Reimer, Berlin.
  • Generelle Morphologie der Organismen. 1866. Allgemeine Grundzüge der organischen Formen-Wissenschaft, mechanisch begründet durch die von Charles Darwin reformirte Descendenz-Theorie. Georg Reimer, Berlin.
  • Das Protistenreich. 1878. Eine populäre Uebersicht über das Formengebiet der niedersten Lebewesen. Mit einem wissenschaftlichen Anhange: System der Protisten. Mit zahlreichen Holzschnitten. Ernst Günther’s Verlag, Leipzig.
  • Monographie der Medusen. Six parts, some in two volumes. Gustav Fischer, Jena 1879–1881.
  • The history of creation (1868) 1993, translated by E. Ray Lankester, Kegan Paul, Trench, London, 3rd edition, volume 1. His best-known work, translated into English.
  • Art forms from the ocean: the Radiolarian atlas of 1862. Prestel Verlag, 2005. A reprint of his artwork for the Radiolaria. ISBN 3-7913-3327-5

References[change | change source]

  1. Ernst Haeckel in Encyclopædia Britannica Concise, 2006, Concise. webpage: CBritannica-Haeckel
  2. Haeckel, Ernst. 1900. The riddle of the Universe at the close of the nineteenth century. Harper, reissued by Cambridge University Press, 2009. ISBN 978-1-108-00089-5
  3. Ernst Haeckel 1868. The history of creation, translated by E. Ray Lankester, Kegan Paul, Trench, London, 1883, 3rd edition, volume 1.
  4. Di Gregorio, Mario A. 2005. From here to eternity: Ernst Haeckel and scientific faith. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. ISBN 3-525-56972-6
  5. Haeckel, Ernst. Art forms from the ocean: the Radiolarian atlas of 1862. Prestel Verlag, 2005. ISBN 3-7913-3327-5
  6. Freedom in science and teaching. German 1877, English 1879, ISBN 1-4102-1175-4.
Haeckel as an elderly man