FOXP2

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FOXP2 gene is located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 7 at position 31.

FOXP2 is a gene which codes for a protein needed for speech and language.

It codes for "Forkhead box protein P2", which is needed for the proper development of speech and language in humans.[1] Versions of this gene occur in many vertebrates, where it generally plays a role in communication (for instance, the development of bird song).

FOXP2 is the first gene found which affects speech and language.[2] The gene is more active in females than in males.[3] In humans, mutations of FOXP2 cause a severe speech and language disorder.[1][4]

FOXP2 is popularly dubbed the "language gene", but this is only partly correct since there are other genes involved in language development.[5] It directly regulates a number of other genes, including CNTNAP2, CTBP1, and SRPX2.[6][7]

Two amino acid substitutions distinguish the human FOXP2 protein from that found in chimpanzees.[8] Evidence suggests that these changes affect the functions of FOXP2.[9][10]

References[change | change source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Lai C.S. et al (2001). "A forkhead-domain gene is mutated in a severe speech and language disorder". Nature 413 (6855): 519–23. doi:10.1038/35097076. PMID 11586359. 
  2. Nudel R & Newbury DF (2013). "FOXP2". Wiley Interdiscip Rev Cogn Sci 4 (5): 547–560. doi:10.1002/wcs.1247. PMC 3992897. PMID 24765219. 
  3. Pennisi, Elizabeth (31 October 2013). "'Language Gene' has a partner". Science. Retrieved 30 October 2014.
  4. MacDermot K.D. et al (2005). "Identification of FOXP2 truncation as a novel cause of developmental speech and language deficits". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 76 (6): 1074–80. doi:10.1086/430841. PMC 1196445. PMID 15877281. 
  5. Harpaz, Yehouda. "Language gene found". human-brain.org. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
  6. Spiteri E, Konopka G, Coppola G, Bomar J, Oldham M, Ou J, Vernes SC, Fisher SE, Ren B, Geschwind DH (2007). "Identification of the transcriptional targets of FOXP2, a gene linked to speech and language, in developing human brain". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 81 (6): 1144–57. doi:10.1086/522237. PMC 2276350. PMID 17999357. 
  7. Vernes SC, Spiteri E, Nicod J, Groszer M, Taylor JM, Davies KE, Geschwind DH, Fisher SE (2007). "High-throughput analysis of promoter occupancy reveals direct neural targets of FOXP2, a gene mutated in speech and language disorders". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 81 (6): 1232–50. doi:10.1086/522238. PMC 2276341. PMID 17999362. 
  8. Enard W, et al (2002). "Molecular evolution of FOXP2, a gene involved in speech and language". Nature 418 (6900): 869–72. doi:10.1038/nature01025. PMID 12192408. 
  9. Enard W. et al (2009). "A humanized version of Foxp2 affects cortico-basal ganglia circuits in mice". Cell 137 (5): 961–71. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.03.041. PMID 19490899. 
  10. Konopka G. et al (2009). "Human-specific transcriptional regulation of CNS development genes by FOXP2". Nature 462 (7270): 213–7. doi:10.1038/nature08549. PMC 2778075. PMID 19907493.