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GIS may stand for Geographic Information Sciences or for Geographic Information System. These are two different things that are related. The Geographic Information Sciences include many fields of knowledge that help to understand geographic information while a Geographic Information System is a computer database that can hold and allow for the study of "layers" of geographic information.

GIS also known as geographic information system is a computer system that was created for the purpose of capturing and displaying positions on the earth’s surface and portray data in many different ways on one map, it main job is to make the tasks of analysing groups of data and finding correlations or patterns. For example a map could use GIS to find out the amount of rubbish in one area and also include how many factories are in that area to link which ones are littering.

GIS can source any information when given a location and helps provide knowledge on many different topics in a location wether it has been given via latitude and longitude, post code or an address. Then GIS can provide information in that area about people including: income, population and education levels or can focus more on the land which can involve soil types, vegetation layout and water sources or manmade structures like buildings and roads.