Julio César Turbay Ayala
|Julio César Turbay Ayala|
|Colombia Ambassador to Italy|
|President||César Gaviria Trujillo|
|Preceded by||Oscar Mejía Vallejo|
|Succeeded by||Plinio Apuleyo Mendoza|
|Colombia Ambassador to Holy See|
|President||Virgilio Barco Vargas|
|Succeeded by||Fernando Hinestrosa Forero|
|25th President of Colombia|
7 August 1978 – 7 August 1982
|Preceded by||Alfonso López Michelsen|
|Succeeded by||Belisario Betancur Cuartas|
|17th Colombia Ambassador to United States|
29 April 1975 – 1976
|President||Alfonso López Michelsen|
|Preceded by||Douglas Botero Boshel|
|Succeeded by||Virgilio Barco Vargas|
|12th Colombia Ambassador to United Kingdom|
6 January 1973 – 15 January 1975
|President||Misael Pastrana Borrero|
|Preceded by||Camilo de Brigard Silva|
|Succeeded by||Alfredo Vásquez Carrizosa|
|11th Permanent Representative of Colombia to the United Nations|
|President||Carlos Lleras Restrepo|
|Preceded by||Alfonso Patiño Rosselli|
|Succeeded by||Joaquín Vallejo Arbeláez|
|Minister of Foreign Affairs of Colombia|
7 August 1958 – 1 September 1961
|President||Alberto Lleras Camargo|
|Preceded by||Carlos Sanz de Santamaría|
|Succeeded by||José Joaquín Caicedo Castilla|
|24th Minister of Mines and Petroleum of Colombia|
11 May 1957 – 7 August 1958
|President||Gabriel París Gordillo|
|Preceded by||Francisco Puyana|
|Succeeded by||Jorge Ospina Delgado|
|Born||Julio César Turbay Ayala
18 June 1916
Bogotá, D.C., Colombia
|Died||13 September 2005
Bogotá, D.C., Colombia
Julio César Turbay Ayala (18 June 1916 – 13 September 2005) was the 25th President of Colombia from 1978 to 1982.
Biographic data[change | change source]
Turbay was born in a poor neighborhood on June 18, 1916. His father, Antonio Amín Turbay, was a businessman who emigrated from Tannourine, Lebanon. His mother, Rosaura Ayala, was a peasant from the province of Cundinamarca. Turbay’s father was a hard working merchant who had built a fortune, which he completely lost during the civil war of the Thousand Days War.
Presidency[change | change source]
1978 Security Statute[change | change source]
In response to an increase in guerrilla activity, a 1978 decree known as the Security Statute was implemented by Turbay's administration.
The Security Statute gave the military an increased degree of freedom of action, especially in urban areas, to detain, interrogate and eventually judge suspected guerrillas or their collaborators before military tribunals. Human rights organizations, newspaper columnists, political personalities and opposition groups complained about an increase in the number of arbitrary detentions and acts of torture as a result.
1980 Dominican embassy crisis[change | change source]
In late 1980, sixteen ambassadors were held hostage for 61 days as part of a takeover of the Dominican Republic's embassy. The incident soon spread throughout worldwide headlines, as ambassadors from the United States of America, Costa Rica, Mexico, Peru, Israel and Venezuela had been taken hostage, as well as Colombia's top representative to the Holy See.
Turbay, despite pressure from military and political sectors, avoided deciding to solve the crisis through the use of direct military force, and instead eventually agreed to let the M-19 rebels travel to Cuba. Allegedly, the rebels also received USD 1 million as payment, instead of the initial $50 million that they had originally demanded from the government.
Personal life[change | change source]
Turbay married his niece, Nydia Quintero Turbay, on July 1, 1948. They had four children together: Julio César, Diana, Claudia, and María Victoria. However, their marriage was annulled by the Roman Catholic Church, and in 1986 he married his longtime companion Amparo Canal, to whom he remained married until his death.
In January 1991, Turbay's daughter Diana was kidnapped by orders of the Medellín Cartel and died during a failed police rescue operation not sanctioned by her family. Her kidnapping is chronicled in News of a Kidnapping by the Nobel Prize-winning author Gabriel García Márquez (1996) and depicted in multiple onscreen productions.
Death[change | change source]
Turbay died on September 13, 2005. He was honored by a state funeral personally led by President Álvaro Uribe and was buried at the Sacromonte Caves at Canton Norte, an army base in Bogotá.
References[change | change source]
- EFE, Julio César Turbay Ayala, ex presidente de Colombia, El Mundo, September 15, 2005
- Arismendi Posada, Ignacio; Gobernantes Colombianos; trans. Colombian Presidents; Interprint Editors Ltd., Italgraf, Segunda Edición; Page 249; Bogotá, Colombia; 1983