List of literary terms

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List of literary terms: in alphabetical order.

A[change | change source]

Abecedarius[change | change source]

An abecedarius is an acrostic where the first letter of every word or verse follows the order of the alphabet. For example, in the sentence A Bear Climbed Down, the first letter of every word is in alphabetical order: A, B, C, D.

Acrostic[change | change source]

A form of writing where the first letter of each line, paragraph, or verse spells out a word or a message.

Allegory[change | change source]

A story or picture with two or more different meanings – a literal meaning and one or more symbolic meanings. The setting, characters, and things that happen inside an allegory are symbols for ideas or qualities.

Alliteration[change | change source]

The repeating of consonant sounds. The repetition can be put side by side (for example, "sleepy sun sank slowly over the sea").

Allusion[change | change source]

A figure of speech which refers indirectly to a situation, and leaves the reader (or audience) to make the connection.

Analogy[change | change source]

New words, ideas, or pronunciations become like the pattern of older or more familiar ones. Comparing two different things. The purpose of an analogy is to describe something unfamiliar or new with something that is more familiar.

Antagonist[change | change source]

The character who the main character has the most conflict with. The antagonist is not always a person or animal, however: for example, the main character could have the most conflict against nature.

Anecdote[change | change source]

A short and humorous (funny) story about a real event or person.

Antihero[change | change source]

A protagonist who does not have many heroic qualities. For example, Tom Jones in Henry Fielding's book Tom Jones is an antihero. Sometimes antagonists who are surprisingly likable are called antiheroes, too.

Antonym[change | change source]

A word that is the opposite of another. (example: Love,Hate).

Archetype[change | change source]

The good example, pattern, blueprint, or model of a type or group. All other things of the same kind are made from this.

Argumentation[change | change source]

The conversation or discourse in which the writer logically presents an argument. It sometimes has the same meaning as persuasion.

Aside[change | change source]

In a play, an aside is a speech that the actor says in a way that the other characters are supposed not to hear it. It usually shows the person's inner thoughts. Similar to the function of the ancient Greek chorus.

Autobiography[change | change source]

A non-fiction story that describes ones life, written by the person themselves.

Audience[change | change source]

A group of people that experience a work of art or literature.

B[change | change source]

Ballad[change | change source]

A song or poem that tells a story in short stanzas and repeated simple words.

Bard[change | change source]

A poet hired by a patron such as a ruler or nobleman to write or sing about the patron's ancestors and to praise the patron's own works.

Biography[change | change source]

A form of nonfiction in which a writer tells the life story of a different person.

Blank verse[change | change source]

Poetry that does not rhyme. Most of Shakespeare's plays are in blank verse. Milton's Paradise Lost is also written in blank verse.

C[change | change source]

Carpe diem[change | change source]

Latin expression which means "seize the day". Literary works with a carpe diem theme are about seizing the moment because life is uncertain. "Do it now" is the sense of the phrase.

Character[change | change source]

A person or an animal who is part of the action of a literary work. The main character is the one the work focuses on. The person with whom the main character has the most conflict is the antagonist. They are the enemy of the main character, who is usually called a protagonist.

Characterization[change | change source]

Characterization is the manner in which an author develops characters and their personalities. Characters can be presented by description. They can also be presented through their speech, thoughts, or actions.

Classicism[change | change source]

A way of thinking in literature and other arts which especially focuses on the importance of reason, balance, clearness and neat, orderly form, like the arts of Greece and Rome.

Conflict[change | change source]

A struggle between two forces against each other. It can be internal or external. When a conflict happens inside a character, it is called internal conflict. For example, in Charlotte Brontë's novel Jane Eyre, Jane is asking herself whether she should live with Mr. Rochester, whom she loves, or if she should go away. An external conflict is usually a conflict that is easy to see, happening between the protagonist and antagonist. Conflict is one of the most important elements of narrative literature.

Contradiction[change | change source]

Two statements that do not seem to agree with one another. "I heard a soundless shout" is a contradiction.

Connotation[change | change source]

The opposite of denotation, refers to an associated meaning or feeling of a word or expression.

Crisis or climax[change | change source]

The moment or event in the plot where it is or he/she is in stress. Here, the main character usually "wins" or "loses". After the climax, there is a denouement (falling action).

D[change | change source]

Denotation[change | change source]

The real, direct meaning of a word, like a "dictionary definition". For example, the word "dog" denotes a mammal from the family Canidae with four legs that is often kept as a pet.

Dialectic[change | change source]

Looking at and thinking about opinions or ideas logically, often by questions and answers.

Digression[change | change source]

Using material that is not related to the subject of the work. Henry Fielding often used digression in his novels.

Drama[change | change source]

A story written to be performed by actors. The person who writes the play writes dialogue for the characters to speak and directions for costumes, lighting, setting, and the character's movements.

Dramatic monologue[change | change source]

A poem or speech in which an imaginary character speaks to a silent listener.

E[change | change source]

Elegy[change | change source]

A solemn, formal poem about death, often for a dead person or thing. It often begins with "In Memory of..."

Ellipsis[change | change source]

Ellipses are used often in everyday life as well as in literature. They usually look like this (...). It is usually used in leaving out or not using words.

Epic poetry[change | change source]

An epic is a long narrative poem. The subject is usually serious, like something that was an important influence to a culture or nation.[1]

Epigraph[change | change source]

A sentence, quotation, or poem that is put at the beginning of a written work.

Epilogue[change | change source]

A piece of writing at the end of a work of literature, especially in drama. It is usually different from the whole work and is used to end it.

Essay[change | change source]

A short nonfiction work about a special subject from the writer's point of view. Essay comes from the Old French word essai, meaning "a trial, try, or attempt".[2]

F[change | change source]

Foreshadowing[change | change source]

Foreshadowing is a literary device by which an author hints what is to come. It is used to avoid disappointment, and sometimes used to arouse readers.

H[change | change source]

Hyperbole[change | change source]

A figure of speech that uses an incredible exaggeration or overstatement, for effect.

I[change | change source]

Idyll[change | change source]

A short poem about simple everyday life, sometimes written in a pastoral (about shepherd life) or sentimental style.

Imagery[change | change source]

Imagery is strong describing language which helps us use our senses and memory when we read.

Irony[change | change source]

Irony means to say something while meaning a different, contradictory thing.

J[change | change source]

Ji-amari[change | change source]

Ji-amari uses one or more extra syllables than the usual 5/7 outline in Japanese poetry formats of waka and haiku.[3]

Jitarazu[change | change source]

Jitarazu uses less syllables than the usual 5/7 outline in Japanese poetry formats of waka and haiku.[4]

K[change | change source]

Kigo[change | change source]

Kigo is a term of Japanese poetry meaning the requirement of using a seasonal word or phrase in haiku and renku.

L[change | change source]

Lyric[change | change source]

Lyric is short and formal sing-song like poem that expresses moods and feelings.

P[change | change source]

Plot[change | change source]

A plot means the events that make up a story. It is important how the events connect to each other. The path of the way the events connect make up the plot of a story or book.[5]

References[change | change source]

  1. Michael Meyer, The Bedford Introduction to Literature, St. Martin's, 2005, p 2128. ISBN 0-312-41242-8
  2. "Online Etymology Dictionary". Retrieved 18 September 2010.
  3. Mostow, Joshua S. Pictures of the Heart: The Hyakunin Isshu in Word and Image. University of Hawaii Press, 1996. ISBN 9780824817053 p12
  4. Crowley, Cheryl. Haikai Poet Yosa Buson and the Bashō Revival. Brill, 2006. ISBN 978-9004157095 p54
  5. "Plot - Examples and Definition of Plot". Literary Devices. 3 November 2013.