Maria I of Portugal

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Maria I
D. Maria I by Miguel António do Amaral, 1777
Queen of Portugal and the Algarves later
Queen of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves
Reign 24 February 1777 – 20 March 1816
Predecessor Joseph I
Successor John VI
Regent João, Prince Regent (1792–1816)
Spouse Peter III of Portugal
José, Prince of Brazil
John VI of Portugal
Infanta Mariana Victoria
Full name
Maria Francisca Isabel Josefa Antónia Gertrudes Rita Joana de Bragança
House House of Braganza
Father Joseph I of Portugal
Mother Mariana Victoria of Spain
Born 17 December 1734(1734-12-17)
Ribeira Palace, Lisbon Kingdom of Portugal
Died 20 March 1816(1816-03-20) (aged 81)
Rio de Janeiro, Kingdom of Brazil
Burial Estrela Basilica, Lisbon, Portugal
Religion Roman Catholic

Maria I (English: Mary I) (17 December 1734 – 20 March 1816) was the Queen of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves. Known as Maria the Pious (in Portugal), or Maria the Mad (in Brazil), she was the first undisputed Queen (in her own right) of Portugal. Her court, then under the direction of her eldest son and heir Dom João, the Prince Regent, moved to the then Portuguese colony of Brazil. Later on, Brazil would be elevated from the rank of a colony to that of a Kingdom. This led to the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves.

Early life[change | change source]

Maria was born at the Ribeira Royal Palace in Lisbon. On the day of her birth, her grandfather, King João V, created her the Princess of Beira. She was the eldest of all her four siblings.

When her father succeeded to the throne in 1750 as José I, Maria became his heiress presumptive and was given the traditional titles of Princess of Brazil and Duchess of Braganza. She was also an Infanta of Portugal from birth and thus entitled to the style of Royal Highness. She grew up during the dominating Marquis of Pombal[a]

Marriage[change | change source]

In 1760 Maria married her uncle Pedro, younger brother of her father Jose I.[1] They had six children, of whom the eldest surviving son succeeded Maria as João VI on her death in 1816.

Titles and Styles[change | change source]

  • 17 December 1734 – 31 July 1750 Her Royal Highness The Princess of Beira, Duchess of Barcelos
  • 31 July 1750 – 24 February 1777 Her Royal Highness The Princess of Brazil, Duchess of Braganza
  • 24 February 1777 – 16 December 1815 Her Most Faithful Majesty The Queen of Portugal and the Algarves
  • 16 December 1815 – 20 March 1816 Her Most Faithful Majesty The Queen of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves

Notes[change | change source]

  1. A noble man who later went on to rule the Kings political decisions as well as having much influence over the royal family

References[change | change source]

  1. António Henrique R. de Oliveira Marques, History of Portugal: From Lusitania to empire (New York: Columbia University Press, 1972), p. 424