Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas Caritat, Marquis de Condorcet (1743-1794) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and politician. He was a liberal thinker, and today is seen as being among the thinkers of the Age of Enlightenment. In 1790, after the French Revolutiion, and after the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. As it says i the declaration, they only applied to men. Condorcet said these rights should also be given to women. He published an essay, Sur l’admission des femmes au droit de cité (On the admission of women on rights of the citizen). In it, he postulated that women should get the right to vote in elections. He also said that black people should have the same rights as white people, that slavery should be abolished and there should be free trade.
In 1786, he married Sophie de Grouchy (1764-1822), a translator, who was said to be among the most beautiful women of her time.
Because of one of his works, there was an arrest warrant against him, so he had to flee from Paris. He is foud in Clamart, and arrested. Two days later, he is found dead in his prison cell. The circumstances of his death are unsolved, he might have poisened himself, someone might have killed him, or died froim Pulmonary edema.
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In 1786 he published Essai sur l’application de l’analyse à la probabilité des décisions rendues à la pluralité des voix, which had a great influence on probability theory.