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Medusa is a character in Greek mythology. Her story has been told and retold by ancient and modern writers and artists.
Medusa has been depicted in the visual arts for centuries. Many interpretations surround the myth, including one by Sigmund Freud. For the ancients, an image of Medusa's head was a device for averting evil. This device was called the Gorgoneion.
Myth[change | edit source]
Medusa was one of three sisters. They were known as The Gorgons. Medusa's sisters were Stheno and Euryale. Medusa was mortal, but her sisters were immortal. They were all children of the sea deities, Phorkys and his sister Keto.
Medusa was beautiful. She attracted the notice of Poseidon. The two had sex in the Temple of Athena. The goddess was outraged. She changed Medusa into a monster with snakes for hair. Any man or animal who looked upon her was turned to stone.
The hero Perseus beheaded Medusa. After using the dreadful head to defeat his enemies, he presented it to Athena. She put it on her shield.
Medusa in art[change | edit source]
Medusa was a subject for ancient vase painters, mosaicists, and sculptors. She appears on the breastplate of Alexander the Great in the Alexander Mosaic at the House of the Faun in Pompeii, Italy (about 200 BC).
Baroque depictions include Head of Medusa by Peter Paul Rubens (1618); the marble bust Medusa by Bernini (1630s); and Perseus Turning Phineus and his Followers to Stone, an oil painting by Luca Giordano from the (early 1680s).
Romantic and modern depictions include Perseus with the Head of Medusa by Antonio Canova (1801) and Perseus, a sculpture by Salvador Dalí. Twentieth century artists who tackled the Medusa theme include Paul Klee, John Singer Sargent, Pablo Picasso, Pierre et Gilles, and Auguste Rodin.