Military career of Muhammad

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Calligraphic representation of the name Muhammad
Native nameأبو القاسم محمد بن عبدالله بن عبد المطلب
(Abu al-Qasim Muhammad ibn 'Abdullah ibn Abd ul-Muttalib)
Birth nameمحمد بن عبدالله
(Muhammad ibn 'Abdullah)
Born12 Rabi'I (c. 570)
Died14 Rabi'I AH 11 (8 June 632)
Buried atThe Green Dome

Military career of Muhammad (c. 570 – 8 June 632), Islam lasted from 622 to 632, the last ten years of his life. He and his followers were expelled from the holy city of Mecca, controlled by the powerful Quraish tribe. He began to block the caravans of Mecca. After the first battle of Badr in 624, his power gradually increased and he began to influence other tribes through diplomacy or conquest.

List of expeditions of Muhammad[change | change source]

Name Name Leader Location C.E. date Outcome Notes
1 Seef ul-Bahr expedition Hamza ibn 'Abdul-Muttalib al-'Is March 623 No combat
2 Batn Rabigh expedition 'Ubaydah ibn al-Harith Rabigh April 623 No combat
3 al-Kharrar expedition May 623 No combat
4(1) Waddan patrol Muhammad al-Abwa' August 623 No combat Alliance with Banu Damrah established
5(2) Buwat patrol Buwat September 623 No combat
6(3) Safwan patrol (1st Badr) Badr September 623

(Rabi' I 2 AH)

No combat
7(4) Patrol of Dhu al-'Ushairah December 623 No combat Alliance with Banu Mudlij established
8 1st Nakhlah Raid 'Abdullah ibn Jahsh al-Asadi Nakhlah January 624 Success First successful raid
9(5) Badr al-Kubra' (2nd Badr) Muhammad Badr 13 March 624

(17 Ramadan 2 AH)

Victory First victory
10(6) Invasion of Banu Qaynuqa Muhammad Medina April 624 Victory Banu Qaynuqa' sent into exile
11(7) Sawiq patrol May/June 624 Inconclusive Abu Sufyan ibn Harb burns 'Urayd farms; kills two Muslims
12(8) Al Kudr Invasion Al Kudr May 624 Victory
13 Killing of Ka'b ibn al-Ashraf August/September 624 Success Ka'b ibn al-Ashraf killed
14(9) Dhu 'Amar raid Muhammad September 624 Success
15(10) Buhran patrol Buhran October/November 624 No combat
16 al-Qarada raid al-Qarada

(in Najd)

November 624 Success
17(11) Battle of Uhud Muhammad Mount Uhud

(near Medina)

23 March 625 Stalemate Tactical defeat; second major battle against the Meccans
18(12) Battle of Hamra' al-Asad Hamra' al-Asad

(near Medina)

March 625 Victory
19 Qatan expedition Abu Salama 'Abdullah ibn 'Abd al-Asad Qatan June 625 No combat
20 Killing of Sufyan ibn Khaled Abdullah ibn Unais June 625 Success Sufyan ibn Khaled, chief of the Banu Lahyan, is killed
21 al-Raji expedition al-Raji July 625 Banu Lahyan kill Muslim missionaries to avenge the killing of Sufyan ibn Khaled
22 Bi'r Ma'ona expedition Bi'r Ma'ona July 625 Banu Amir kill Muslim missionaries
23(13) Invasion of Banu Nadir Muhammad Medina August 625 Victory Banu Nadir sent into exile
24(14) Badr al-Maw'id expedition Badr April 626 Victory
25(15) Dhat al-Riqa' expedition Dhat al-Riqa' June 626 No combat
26(16) 1st Daumat al-Jandal expedition Daumat al-Jandal August/September 626 No combat
27 al-Muraysi' expedition January 627 Victory
28(17) Battle of the Trench Muhammad Medina April 627 Victory
29(18) Invasion of Banu Qurayza May 627 Victory Men of the Banu Qurayza' executed; women and children enslaved
30 Dir'iyah raid Muhammad ibn Maslamah Dir'iyah June 627 Victory
31(19) Invasion of Banu Lahyan Muhammad Batn Gharran July 627 No combat
32 Dhu Qarad expedition Dhu Qarad August 627 Partial success
33 2nd Banu Asad raid Ukasha ibn al-Mihsan Ghamrah August/September 627
34 1st Banu Tha'labah raid August/September 627
35 2nd Banu Tha'labah raid August/September 627
36 al-Jumum expedition Zayd ibn Harithah Al Jumum September 627
37 al-'Is expedition September/October 627
38 3rd Banu Tha'labah raid October/November 627
39 Hisma expedition Zayd ibn Harithah October/November 627
40 Wadi al-Qurra' expedition Wadi al-Qurra' November/December 627
41 2nd Daumat al-Jandal expedition 'Abd al-Rahman ibn 'Awf Daumat al-Jandal December 627/January 628
42 1st Fidak expedition Fidak December 627/January 628
43 2nd Wadi al-Qurra' expedition Zayd ibn Harithah Wadi al-Qurra' 628
44 Banu 'Uraynah raid Kurz ibn Jabir al-Fihri January/February 628
45 Expedition of Abdullah ibn Rawaha 'Abdullah ibn Rawaha February/March 628
46(20) Treaty of Hudaybiyyah Muhammad March 628 10-year truce signed
47(21) Conquest of Fidak 'Ali ibn Abu Talib Fidak May 628 Victory
48(22) Battle of Khaybar Muhammad Khaybar May/June 628 Victory
49(23) 3rd Wadi al-Qurra' expedition Wadi al-Qurra' May 628
50 Turbah expedition 'Umar ibn al-Khattab Turbah December 628
51 Najd expedition Abu Bakr as-Siddiq Najd December 628
52 Fidak expedition Bashir ibn Sa'ad al-Ansari Fidak December 628
53 Mayfah expedition Ghalib ibn 'Abdullah al-Laythi January 629
54 Yemen expedition Bashir ibn Sa'ad al-Ansari Yemen February 629
55 Banu Sulaym expedition Ibn Abi al-Awja' al-Sulami April 629
56 2nd Fidak expedition Ghalib ibn 'Abdullah al-Laythi Fidak May 629
57 al-Kadid expedition June 629
58 al-Siyii expedition Shuja' ibn Wahb al-Asadi June 629
59 Dhat 'Atlah expedition Ka'b ibn 'Umair al-Ghirfari July 629
60 Battle of Mu'tah Zayd ibn Harithah Mu'tah September 629 Disputed Three major Muslim generals killed
61 Dhat as-Salasil expedition 'Amr ibn al-'As October 629
62 al-Khabt expedition Abu 'Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah October 629
63 al-Ghaba expedition Abu Hadrad al-Aslami 629
64 Khadirah expedition Abu Qatadah ibn Rab'i al-Ansari December 629
65 Batn 'Edam expedition December 629
66(24) Conquest of Mecca Muhammad Mecca January 630 Victory
67 Nakhlah expedition Nakhlah January 630
68 Ruhat raid Ruhat

(near Mecca)

January 630 Victory
69 al-Mashallal raid al-Mashallal

(near Mecca)

January 630
70 Banu Jadhimah raid Khalid ibn al-Walid January 630
71(25) Battle of Hunayn Muhammad Hunayn (near Mecca) January 630 Victory
72 Dhu al-Kaffain expedition Tufayl ibn 'Amr ad-Dausi January 630 Victory
73(26) Battle of Autas Muhammad Autas 630 Victory
74 1st Autas expedition Abu Amir al-Ash'ari January 630
75 2nd Autas expedition Abu Musa al-Ash'ari January 630
76(27) Siege of Ta'if Muhammad February 630 Inconclusive
77 Expedition of Uyainah bin Hisn April/May 630
78 Expedition of Qutbah ibn Amir May/June 630
79 Expedition of Dahhak al-Kilabi June/July 630
80 Expedition of Alqammah bin Mujazziz July/August 630
81 al-Fuls expedition 'Ali ibn Abu Talib July/August 630
82 'Udhrah and Baliyy expedition Ukasha ibn al-Mihsan 630
83(28) Tabuk expedition Muhammad October/December 630 Inconclusive
84 3rd Daumat al-Jandal expedition Khalid ibn al-Walid Daumat al-Jandal October 630 9
85 Expedition of Abu Sufyan ibn Harb Abu Sufyan ibn Harb 630 9
86 Demolition of Masjid al-Dirar Medina 630 Victory
87 2nd Daumat al-Jandal expedition Khalid ibn al-Walid Daumat al-Jandal April 631 9
88 Expedition of Surad ibn Abdullah Surad ibn 'Abdullah April 631 9
89 Najran expedition Khalid ibn al-Walid Najran June/July 631 10
80 Mudhij expedition 'Ali ibn Abu Talib December 631 10
91 Hamdan expedition 632 10
92 Demolition of Dhu al-Khalasa April 632 10
93 Balqa' expedition Usama ibn Zayd Balqa' May 632 10

Further reading[change | change source]

  • Berger, Lutz (2016). Die Entstehung des Islam. Die ersten hundert Jahre (in German). C. H. Beck. ISBN 978-3406696930.
  • Gabriel, Richard A. (2007). Muhammad: Islam's First Great General. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0806138602.
  • Kister, M. J. (1986). "The Massacre of the Banū Qurayẓa: A Re-examination of a Tradition". Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam. 8. ISSN 0334-4118.
  • Lings, Martin (1983). Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources. Inner Traditions. ISBN 978-0946621330.

References[change | change source]

  • Abdel-Samad, Hamed (2016). Der Koran. Botschaft der Liebe. Botschaft des Hasses (in German). Droemer. ISBN 978-3426277010.
  • Donner, Fred (1981). The Early Islamic Conquests. Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691101828.
  • Mikaberidze, Alexander (2011). "Badr, Battle of". In Mikaberidze, Alexander (ed.). Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC–CLIO. pp. 165–166. ISBN 978-1598843361.
  • Pickthall, Muhammad M. (1930). The Quran.
  • Rodgers, Russ (2012). The Generalship of Muhammad: Battles and Campaigns of the Prophet of Allah. University Press of Florida. ISBN 9780813042718.
  • William Montgomery Watt (1956). Muhammad at Medina. Oxford University Press.
  • William Montgomery Watt (1974). Muhammad: prophet and statesman. Oxford University Press.
  • al-Mubarakpu. The Sealed Nectar: Biography of the Noble Prophet.