Kingdom of Nanzhao as of 879 AD
|Capital||Taihe (also named Yangxiemie, near present day Dali)|
|Today part of||China|
|Shan||လၢၼ်ႉၸဝ်ႈ (lâan tsāw)|
History[change | change source]
Most Nanzhao were Bai people. They spoke Nuosu (Yi), a Tibeto-Burman language related to Burmese. They descended from the Cuan clan. The Cuan migrated from Taiyuan to Yunnan during Zhuge Liang's Southern Campaign in 225. By the fourth century they controlled Yunnan.
In 737, the Tang dynasty helped unify the tribes and create a new kingdom called the Nanzhao (南诏 "Southern Zhao"). In 738 the capital was established in Taihe (south of Dali). It was in the Erhai valley; the mountains made it easy to defend; and there was a lot of farmland.
Tubo alliance[change | change source]
Nanzhao attacks on Tang[change | change source]
In 873, the Yang family of Shanxi kicked the Nanzhao were out of Sichuan. In 877 the Yang kicked them out of Guizhou. The Nanzhao retreated to Yunnan, and they slowly died. In 902, their chief minister murdered most of the royal family, including the heir apparent. In 937, Duan Siping seized power and created the Dali Kingdom.
They were Buddhists[change | change source]
They called it Azhali. Azhali is a bit different from Han Buddhist schools like Zen (Chan Buddhism). But it has Han, Tibetan, and Burmese influences. Nanzhao likely had strong religious connections with the Pagan Kingdom (Myanmar), Tibet, and Bengal (Pala Empire).
References[change | change source]
- Joe Cummings, Robert Storey (1991). China, Volume 10 (3, illustrated ed.). the University of California: Lonely Planet Publications. p. 705. ISBN 0-86442-123-0. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- C. X. George Wei (2002). Exploring nationalisms of China: themes and conflicts. Indiana University: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 195. ISBN 0-313-31512-4. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- Beckwith 1987. sfn error: no target: CITEREFBeckwith1987 (help)
- Blackmore 1960. sfn error: no target: CITEREFBlackmore1960 (help)
- Herman 2007. sfn error: no target: CITEREFHerman2007 (help)
- Megan Bryson, "Baijie and the Bai: Gender and Ethnic Religion in Dali, Yunnan", Asian Ethnology 72, 2013, pp. 3-31
- Megan Bryson, "Mahākāla worship in the Dali kingdom (937-1253) – A study and translation of the Dahei tianshen daochang yi", Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 35, 2012, pp. 3-69
- Thant Myint-U, Where China Meets India: Burma and the New Crossroads of Asia, Part 3
- Howard, Angela F. “The Dhāraṇī pillar of Kunming, Yunnan: A legacy of esoteric Buddhism and burial rites of the Bai people in the kingdom of Dali, 937–1253”, Artibus Asiae 57, 1997, pp. 33-72 (see p. 43-44).
- "Nanzhao State and Dali State". City of Dali. Archived from the original on 2006-09-03.