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Parkinsonian syndrome (also known as Parkinsonism, atypical Parkinson's or secondary Parkinson's) is a neurological syndrome characterized by tremor, hypokinesia, rigidity, and postural instability. There are many conditions that lead to Parkinsonism, and diagnosis can be difficult. While the neurodegenerative condition Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common cause of parkinsonism, a wide range of other causes may lead to a similar set of symptoms, including some toxins, a few metabolic diseases, and a handful of neurological conditions unrelated to Parkinson's disease. Its most common cause is as a side effect of medications, mainly neuroleptic antipsychotics especially the phenothiazines (such as perphenazine and chlorpromazine), thioxanthenes (such as flupenthixol and zuclopenthixol) and butyrophenones (such as haloperidol (Haldol)), piperazines (such as ziprasidone), and, rarely, antidepressants.[source?]
References[change | edit source]
- Aminoff MJ, Greenberg DA, Simon RP (2005). Clinical Neurology (6th ed.). Lange: McGraw-Hill Medical. pp. 241–5. ISBN 0-07-142360-5.
- Tuite PJ, Krawczewski K (2007). "Parkinsonism: a review-of-systems approach to diagnosis". Seminars in neurology 27 (2): 113–22. doi:10.1055/s-2007-971174. PMID 17390256.
- Christine CW, Aminoff MJ (2004). "Clinical differentiation of parkinsonian syndromes: prognostic and therapeutic relevance". Am. J. Med. 117 (6): 412–9. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2004.03.032. PMID 15380498.