Potential energy

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The self-gravitational involution of a mass can be visualized as a series of concentric shells. The higher a shell, the lower its rotational frequency. If we extend the series of concentric shells to infinity, then the outermost shell's rotational frequency will be zero, so that the shell will have the lowest (i.e., zero) actual energy (nonzero‑frequency angular momentum) and the highest (i.e., zero) potential energy (zero‑frequency angular momentum).

A potential energy is the energy that an object has because of its position on a gradient of potential energy called a potential field, or just a potential.[1][2]

The potential fields are irrotationally radial ("electric") fluxes of the vacuum[4][5] and divide into two classes:

  • The gravitoelectric fields;[6]
  • The electric fields.[7]

The potential energy is negative.[8] It is not a mere convention but a consequence of conservation of energy in the zero-energy universe—as an object descends into a potential field, its potential energy becomes more negative, while its actual energy becomes more positive.

In accordance with the minimum total potential energy principle, the universe's matter flows towards the minimum total potential energy. This cosmic flow is time.

Simple examples[change | change source]

Hyrdroelectric power plants use the gravitoelectric potential energy of water (in the form of a difference in height) to produce electricity.

Bringing a rock uphill increases (i.e., makes less negative) its gravitoelectric potential energy. Stretching a rubber band increases its elastic potential energy, which is a form of the electric potential energy. A mixture of a fuel and an oxidant has a chemical potential energy, which is another form of the electric potential energy. Batteries too have chemical potential energy.

Gravitational potential energy[change | change source]

Gravitational potential energy is experienced by an object when height and mass is a factor in the system. Gravitational potential energy causes objects to move towards each other. If an object is lifted a certain distance from the surface from the Earth, the force experienced is caused by weight and height. Work is defined as force over a distance, and work is another word for energy. This means Gl Potential Energy is equal to:


U = F \Delta h
where
F is the force of gravity
\Delta h is the change in height

or


U = mgh

Total work done by Gravitational Potential Energy in a moving object from position 1 to position 2 can be found by:


\Delta W = U_1-U_2

or


\Delta W = mgh_1-mgh_2
where
m is the mass of the object
g is the acceleration caused by gravity (constant)
h_1 is the first position
h_2 is the second position

Electric potential energy[change | change source]

Electric potential energy is experienced by charges both different and alike, as they repel or attract each other. Charges can either be positive (+) or negative (-), where opposite charges attract and similar charges repel. If two charges were placed a certain distance away from each other, the potential energy stored between the charges can be calculated by:


U = \frac{kQq}{r}
where
k is 1/4πє (for air or vacuum it is 9 x 10^9 N m^2/C^2)
Q is the first charge
q is the second charge
r is the distance apart

Elastic potential energy[change | change source]

Elastic potential energy is experienced when a rubbery material is pulled away or pushed together. The amount of potential energy the material has depends on the distance pulled or pushed. The longer the distance pushed, the greater the elastic potential energy the material has. If a material is pulled or pushed, the potential energy can be calculated by:


U = \frac{1}{2}kx^2
where
k is the spring force constant (how well the material stretches or compresses)
x is the distance the material moved from its original position

Related pages[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. Morrison, Faith A. ♦ An Introduction to Fluid Mechanics Cambridge University Press, 2013, p. 442 ♦ "Energy may be stored in the state of a system—for example, as kinetic energy stored in the speed of the system, as potential energy stored in the position of the system in a potential field, or as internal energy stored in the chemical state of a system."
  2. Best, Myron G. ♦ Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology John Wiley & Sons, 2013, p. 21 ♦ "Potential energy can be equated with the amount of work required to move a body from one position to another in a potential field, in this instance, the gravitational field of the Earth."
  3. Biedenharn, L. C.; Louck, J. D. ♦ Angular Momentum in Quantum Physics Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., Advanced Book Program, 1981 ♦ "The Planck quantum of action, h, has precisely the dimensions of an angular momentum, and, moreover, the Bohr quantization hypothesis specified the unit of (orbital) angular momentum to be ħ = h/2π. Angular momentum theory and quantum physics are thus clearly linked."
  4. 4.0 4.1 Ziegler, Franz ♦ Mechanics of Solids and Fluids Springer, 1995, p. 167 ♦ "Force in such a potential field is a flux in the sense of a mechanical driving agent."
  5. 5.0 5.1 Volovik, G. E. ♦ The Universe in a Helium Droplet Oxford University Press, 2003, p. 60 ♦ "The non-viscous flow of the vacuum should be potential (irrotational)."
  6. Grøn, Øyvind; Hervik, Sigbjørn ♦ Einstein's General Theory of Relativity with Modern Applications in Cosmology Springer, 2007, pp. 201, 203 ♦ "φ is the Newtonian or 'gravitoelectric' potential: φ = −Gm/r. ... In the Newtonian theory there will not be any gravitomagnetic effects; the Newtonian potential is the same irrespective of whether or not the body is rotating. Hence the gravitomagnetic field is a purely relativistic effect. The gravitoelectric field is the Newtonian part of the gravitational field, while the gravitomagnetic field is the non-Newtonian part."
  7. Soviet Physics, Uspekhi v. 40, issues 1–6, American Institute of Physics, 1997, p. 39 ♦ "From Maxwell equations (6.20) it follows that the electric field is potential: E(r) = −gradφ(r)."
  8. Why is the Potential Energy Negative? HyperPhysics