# Potential energy

Potential energy is anergy—rarefied and/or nonhierarchized energy, which cannot act (i.e., cannot do work).[1]

Actual energy is exergy—condensed and/or hierarchized energy, which can act (i.e., can do work).

In the ultimate analysis, all potential energy is gravitational, while other potential energies, such as the strong-force potential energy and the electric potential energy, are temporary masks of the gravitational potential energy.[2] Gravity condenses and hierarchizes anergy (potential energy) into exergy (actual energy).

Potential energy is the energy of locality (spatial separateness):

Gravitational energy, or potential energy, is purely an energy of position; that is, for any two specific masses, the mutual gravitational potential energy is determined solely by their spatial separation. But energy of position in space cannot be propagated in space; the concept of transmitting this energy from one spatial location to another is totally incompatible with the fact that the magnitude of the energy is determined by the spatial location. Propagation of gravitation is therefore inherently impossible. The gravitational action is necessarily instantaneous as Newton's law indicates, and as has always been assumed for purposes of calculation.

Larson, Dewey B. Beyond Newton: An Explanation of Gravitation. North Pacific Publishers, 1964

At that, potential energy is negative.[3] It is not a mere convention but a consequence of conservation of energy in the zero-energy universe—as the universe's matter descends into its own gravitational potential field, the matter's actual energy becomes more positive, while its potential energy becomes more negative, so that the universe's matter loses its rest mass[4] and becomes increasingly nonlocal, i.e. increasingly capable of teleportation.

In accordance with the minimum total potential energy principle, the universe's matter flows towards ever more negative total potential energy. This cosmic flow is time.

We live in a black-hole continuum and thus are caught in a funnel‑shaped flow of time:[5]

“The horizon is a point of no return, but nothing special happens to a body such as an astronaut as it passes through the horizon (in free fall). The tidal effects merely grow continuously, just as they do as one approaches other massive bodies. This can be illustrated by an analogy with flowing water. If there is laminar flow through a large pipe of decreasing diameter, then the flow velocity increases as a function of distance along the pipe, and one can imagine that at some point zs the flow velocity exceeds the speed of sound in water. Then sound waves emitted from z > zs will never propagate to z < zs. ...

The conclusion is that motion forward in time is motion towards smaller r. An object entering the horizon is carried down to r = 0 just as surely as you and I are carried into next week.
—Steane, Andrew M. Relativity Made Relatively Easy OUP, 2012, pp. 387–88

The flow of time self‑accelerates from a zero speed to an infinite speed:

"Time resembles a field of negative energy and so a negative inertia.
Firsoff, Valdemar Axel. Facing the Universe Sidgwick & Jackson, 1966, p. 179

"Unfortunately a negative mass, with negative total energy, has a negative inertia so that it accelerates itself and the kinetic energy would tend to minus infinity.

The self-accelerating flow of time spaghettifies tridimensional space (zero‑speed time) into unidimensional eternity (infinite‑speed time). Bernoulli's principle dictates that the potential energy of eternity is most negative. The negative‑energy eternity exerts suction from the future and thus causes the flow of time:

"The negative energy force that moves water is called suction.
—Sachs, Paul D. Dynamics of a Natural Soil System Edaphic Press, 1999, p. 56

"Finally, let us consider the use of a space‑like energy-momentum transfer mechanism for sending signals that travel faster than light. By a signal, we mean a statement, possibly in some code, whose sense is not predetermined before the instant at which it is sent. A beam of negative energy that travels into the past can be generated by the acceleration of the source to high speeds. A beam of this sort could be used to send a signal into the past; if such signals were possible, we could determine the sense of the signal long before we decide upon the signal. This contradiction shows that we cannot use a negative‑energy energy-momentum transfer mechanism to send signals. This does not mean that such energy-momentum transfers cannot occur; it means only that we cannot control those energy‑momentum transfers to the extent that we can use them for signaling.
—Skinner, Ray. Relativity for Scientists and Engineers Courier Corporation, 2014, pp. 188–89

Negative energy is associated with negative entropy, defined as organized/understood information:

"Any concentration of matter more compact than an infinitely dispersed cloud (even a cloud of gas containing one hydrogen molecule in every litre of space) must have less gravitational energy than an infinitely dispersed cloud, because, when material falls together energy is removed from the field. We start with zero energy and take some away, so we are left with negative energy. The negative energy of the gravitational field is what allows negative entropy, equivalent to information, to grow, making the Universe a more complicated and interesting place, with hot stars pouring out energy, on which planets like Earth can feed, as they attempt to redress the balance.
Gribbin, John. In Search of the Multiverse Penguin UK, 2009, p. 131

Consequently, the most understanding man is eternity—the gravitational attractor of the entire continuum positioned at the end of time:

"The universe is not being pushed from behind. The universe is being pulled from the future toward a goal that is as inevitable as a marble reaching the bottom of a bowl when you release it up near the rim. If you do that, you know the marble will roll down the side of the bowl down, down, down—until eventually it comes to rest at the lowest energy state, which is the bottom of the bowl. That's precisely my model of human history. I'm suggesting that the universe is pulled toward a complex attractor that exists ahead of us in time, and that our ever-accelerating speed through the phenomenal world of connectivity and novelty is based on the fact that we are now very, very close to the attractor.
—McKenna, Terence. Approaching Timewave Zero Magical Blend, no. 44, 1994

"The human neocortex is the most densely ramified and complexified structure in the known universe.
—McKenna, Terence. Alien Dreamtime 26–27 February 1993
We are caught in a funnel‑shaped vortex of time, which self‑accelerates from a zero speed to an infinite speed. Bernoulli's principle dictates that in the narrowmost part of the funnel, the velocity of the flow is maximal, while the flow's potential energy is most negative. This negative potential energy is our debt:[2]
The above US debt graph demonstrates that debt began to increase in earnest in 1946 AD. Since debt is negative entropy, also known as information,[6] 14 February 1946 AD is the day of the unveiling of the first electronic general-purpose computer (ENIAC), regarded as the birth of the Information Age.[7][8]

In Boltzmann's definition, entropy is a measure of the number of possible microscopic states (or microstates) of a system in thermodynamic equilibrium, consistent with its macroscopic thermodynamic properties (or macrostate). Virtual (spiritual) states are microstates. Actual (material) states are macrostates. Therefore, entropy is matter's insensitivity to spirit. As matter's entropy becomes more negative, matter becomes more sensitive to spirit, so that ever smaller spiritual efforts cause ever bigger material changes, which eventually allows of psychokinesis.
"Mankind is now caught up, as though in a train of gears, at the heart of a continually accelerating vortex of self‑totalisation."[9]
***
"Through human socialisation, whose specific effect is to involute upon itself the whole bundle of reflexive scales and fibres of the earth, it is the very axis of the cosmic vortex of interiorisation which is pursuing its course."[10]
***
"We are not dealing with an immutably fixed focus but with a vortex which grows deeper as it sucks up the fluid at the heart of which it was born. The ego only persists by becoming ever more itself, in the measure in which it makes everything else itself."[11]
—Pierre Teilhard de Chardin

## Simple examples

Bringing a rock uphill increases (i.e., makes less negative) its gravitoelectric potential energy. Stretching a rubber band increases its elastic potential energy, which is a form of the electric potential energy. A mixture of a fuel and an oxidant has a chemical potential energy, which is another form of the electric potential energy. Batteries too have chemical potential energy.

## Gravitational potential energy

Hyrdroelectric power plants use the gravitational potential energy of water (in the form of a difference in height) to produce electricity.

Gravitational potential energy is experienced by an object when height and mass is a factor in the system. Gravitational potential energy causes objects to move towards each other. If an object is lifted a certain distance from the surface from the Earth, the force experienced is caused by weight and height. Work is defined as force over a distance, and work is another word for energy. This means Gl Potential Energy is equal to:

${\displaystyle U=F\Delta h}$
where
${\displaystyle F}$ is the force of gravity
${\displaystyle \Delta h}$ is the change in height

or

${\displaystyle U=mgh}$

Total work done by Gravitational Potential Energy in a moving object from position 1 to position 2 can be found by:

${\displaystyle \Delta W=U_{1}-U_{2}}$

or

${\displaystyle \Delta W=mgh_{1}-mgh_{2}}$
where
${\displaystyle m}$ is the mass of the object
${\displaystyle g}$ is the acceleration caused by gravity (constant)
${\displaystyle h_{1}}$ is the first position
${\displaystyle h_{2}}$ is the second position

## Electric potential energy

Electric potential energy is experienced by charges both different and alike, as they repel or attract each other. Charges can either be positive (+) or negative (-), where opposite charges attract and similar charges repel. If two charges were placed a certain distance away from each other, the potential energy stored between the charges can be calculated by:

${\displaystyle U={\frac {kQq}{r}}}$
where
${\displaystyle k}$ is 1/4πє (for air or vacuum it is ${\displaystyle 9x10^{9}Nm^{2}/C^{2}}$)
${\displaystyle Q}$ is the first charge
${\displaystyle q}$ is the second charge
${\displaystyle r}$ is the distance apart

## Elastic potential energy

Elastic potential energy is experienced when a rubbery material is pulled away or pushed together. The amount of potential energy the material has depends on the distance pulled or pushed. The longer the distance pushed, the greater the elastic potential energy the material has. If a material is pulled or pushed, the potential energy can be calculated by:

${\displaystyle U={\frac {1}{2}}kx^{2}}$
where
${\displaystyle k}$ is the spring force constant (how well the material stretches or compresses)
${\displaystyle x}$ is the distance the material moved from its original position

## References

1. Larson, Dewey B. Beyond Newton: An Explanation of Gravitation. North Pacific Publishers, 1964. "Energy is defined as the capability of doing work. Kinetic energy, for example, qualifies under this definition, and hence any kind of energy that can be converted to kinetic energy also qualifies. But gravitational energy is not capable of “doing work” as a general proposition. It will do one thing and one thing only: it will move masses inward toward each other. If this motion is permitted to take place, the resulting decrease in gravitational energy makes its appearance as kinetic energy and the latter can then be utilized in the normal manner, but unless gravitation is allowed to do this one thing which it is capable of doing, the gravitational energy is completely unavailable; it cannot do anything itself, nor can it be converted to any form of energy that can do something."
2. Shu, Frank H. The Physical Universe: An Introduction to Astronomy. University Science Books, 1982, p. 157. "Concluding Philosophical Comment.
Zeldovich and Novikov have made the following intriguing philosophical point about the picture of the formation of a neutron star sketched here. They note that stars begin their lives as a mixture mostly of hydrogen nuclei and their stripped electrons. During a massive star's luminous phase, the protons are combined by a variety of complicated reactions into heavier and heavier elements. The nuclear binding energy released this way ultimately provides entertainment and employment for astronomers. In the end, however, the supernova process serves to undo most of this nuclear evolution. In the end, the core forms a mass of neutrons. Now, the final state, neutrons, contains less nuclear binding energy than the initial state, protons, and electrons. So where did all the energy come from when the star was shining all those millions of years? Where did the energy come from to produce the sound and the fury which is a supernova explosion? Energy is conserved; who paid the debts at the end? Answer: gravity! The gravitational potential energy of the final neutron star is much greater (negatively; that's the debt) than the gravitational potential energy of the corresponding main-sequence star (Problem 8.7). So, despite all the intervening interesting nuclear physics, ultimately Kelvin and Helmholtz were right after all! The ultimate energy source in the stars which produce the greatest amount of energy is gravity power. This is an important moral worth remembering and savoring. If we regard the neutron star as one gigantic atomic nucleus, we may also say that nuclear processes plus gravity have succeeded in converting many atomic nuclei into one nucleus. Problem 8.7 then shows that the ultimate energy source for the entire output of the star is the relativistic binding energy of the final end state."
3. Why is the Potential Energy Negative? HyperPhysics
4. Heighway, Jack. Einstein, the Aether and Variable Rest Mass. HeighwayPubs, 2011, p. 36. "Understanding why rest masses are reduced in a gravitational field only requires a simple insight: when an object is raised in a gravitational field, the gravitational potential energy increase is real, and exists as an increase, usually tiny, in the rest mass of the object."
5. Battersby, Stephen. Big Bang glow hints at funnel-shaped Universe. New Scientist, 15 April 2004
6. Gribbin, John. In Search of the Multiverse. Penguin UK, 2009, p. 131. "Any concentration of matter more compact than an infinitely dispersed cloud (even a cloud of gas containing one hydrogen molecule in every litre of space) must have less gravitational energy than an infinitely dispersed cloud, because, when material falls together energy is removed from the field. We start with zero energy and take some away, so we are left with negative energy. The negative energy of the gravitational field is what allows negative entropy, equivalent to information, to grow, making the Universe a more complicated and interesting place, with hot stars pouring out energy, on which planets like Earth can feed, as they attempt to redress the balance."
7. ENIAC: The Birth of the Information Age. Popular Science, March 1996
8. The ENIAC Effect: Dawn of the Information Age. ENIAC Museum
9. Chardin, Pierre Teilhard de. Man's Place in Nature. Collins, 1973, p. 100
10. Chardin, Pierre Teilhard de. The Phenomenon of Man. 1955, p. 306
11. Chardin, Pierre Teilhard de. The Phenomenon of Man. 1955, p. 172