# Potential energy Any baryon is being sucked to its own centre, which, in its turn, is being sucked to the regional centre, which, in its turn, is being sucked to the universe's centre, which is the most negentropic (complex and interesting) structure in the universe—the planet Earth, or, more precisely, the man of the highest intuition. The gravitational potential energy of a galaxy is more negative than the mere sum of the negative gravitational potential energies of its stars (see Dark matter). Thus, the galaxy is holistic/synergetic, or, which is the same, animate. The potential energy of the axon is more negative than the mere sum of the negative potential energies of the dendrites. That is why there is a flux from the dendrites (flux receivers) to the axon terminals (flux transmitters). Thus, the neuron is holistic/synergetic, or, which is the same, animate.

Potential energy is the energy that an object has because of its position on a gradient of potential energy called a potential field.

• Actual energy is rotational kinetic energy (E = hf), i.e. positive‑frequency angular momentum. Actual energy is also known as transverse/relativistic/inertial mass, which increases with speed, so that the maximum speed of actual energy's propagation is the speed of light.
• Potential energy is translational kinetic energy, i.e. negative‑frequency angular momentum. Whereas a positive angular momentum is accompanied by a centrifugal force, a negative angular momentum is accompanied by a centripetal force. That is why negative potential energy is negative rest mass, also known as gravitational mass—a physical quantity expressing a body's force of gravity. Potential energy (rest mass) exists mostly in the form of baryons and is maximal (i.e., zero) when baryons are translationally at rest, so that the volume of a baryon is infinitely big, while the spatial separation between the centres of baryons is infinitely large. In the real world, potential energy is always negative, and, because of that, has a negative inertia, which decreases (i.e., becomes more negative) with speed, so that potential energy self-accelerates to an infinite speed and manifests itself as a centripetal suction. exerted from the future. Any object is being sucked to its own centre, which, in its turn, is being sucked to the regional centre, which, in its turn, is being sucked to the universe's centre, which is the most negentropic (complex and interesting) structure in the universe—the planet Earth, or, more precisely, the man of the highest intuition. All motion in the universe, including all human emotions and thoughts, is caused by the suction He exerts from the future, so that the entire 13.7‑billion‑year history of the universe is the process of His self‑assembly.

The potential fields are irrotationally radial ("electric") fluxes of the vacuum and divide into two classes:

• The gravitoelectric fields.
• The electric fields.

Accordingly, the potential energy of the universe divides into two classes:

• The gravitoelectric potential energy. Negative gravitoelectric potential energy exists as flux tubes called wormholes.
• The electric potential energy, also known as electric charge. An elementary positive charge, called a proton, is a region of high electric potential energy, while an elementary negative charge, called an electron, is a region of low electric potential energy. An electron is the exit mouth of a wormhole whose entry mouth is a proton. Through that wormhole, the electron sucks potential energy (volume, rest mass) from the proton, and emits the energy, in the form of photons, into the ambient space, so that the volume of the proton shrinks, while the volume of the ambient space expands. This process is known as the accelerating expansion of the universe. By the end of time, protons will be completely converted into photons.

In accordance with the minimum total potential energy principle, the universe's matter flows towards the minimum (i.e., the most negative) total potential energy. This cosmic flow is time, whereas the gradient of the universe's potential energy, down which the flow of time is being sucked, is eternity or fate.

The negative potential energies of homogeneously situated particles cancel each other, so that the total potential energy is zero. Conversely, the negative potential energies of hierarchically (dendritically) situated particles amplify each other, so that the total potential energy is more negative than the mere sum of the negative potential energies of the particles (see Binding energy). Thus, any negative-potential-energy hierarchy is holistic/synergetic, or, which is the same, animate, which implies that the universe's negative potential energy is the universe's spirit. In accordance with the minimum total potential energy principle, the universe becomes ever more hierarchically animate.

## Simple examples

Bringing a rock uphill consumes (negates) actual energy but increases (i.e., makes less negative) the rock's gravitoelectric potential energy.

Increasing the distance between two elementary electric charges of different signs (an electron and a proton) consumes (negates) external actual energy but increases (i.e., makes less negative) the electric potential energy of their mutual attraction.

Stretching a rubber band increases its elastic potential energy, which is a form of the electric potential energy. A mixture of a fuel and an oxidant has a chemical potential energy, which is another form of the electric potential energy. Batteries too have chemical potential energy.

## Gravitational potential energy

Gravitational potential energy is experienced by an object when height and mass is a factor in the system. Gravitational potential energy causes objects to move towards each other. If an object is lifted a certain distance from the surface from the Earth, the force experienced is caused by weight and height. Work is defined as force over a distance, and work is another word for energy. This means Gl Potential Energy is equal to:

$U=F\Delta h$ where
$F$ is the force of gravity
$\Delta h$ is the change in height

or

$U=mgh$ Total work done by Gravitational Potential Energy in a moving object from position 1 to position 2 can be found by:

$\Delta W=U_{1}-U_{2}$ or

$\Delta W=mgh_{1}-mgh_{2}$ where
$m$ is the mass of the object
$g$ is the acceleration caused by gravity (constant)
$h_{1}$ is the first position
$h_{2}$ is the second position

## Electric potential energy

Electric potential energy is experienced by charges both different and alike, as they repel or attract each other. Charges can either be positive (+) or negative (-), where opposite charges attract and similar charges repel. If two charges were placed a certain distance away from each other, the potential energy stored between the charges can be calculated by:

$U={\frac {kQq}{r}}$ where
$k$ is 1/4πє (for air or vacuum it is $9x10^{9}Nm^{2}/C^{2}$ )
$Q$ is the first charge
$q$ is the second charge
$r$ is the distance apart

## Elastic potential energy

Elastic potential energy is experienced when a rubbery material is pulled away or pushed together. The amount of potential energy the material has depends on the distance pulled or pushed. The longer the distance pushed, the greater the elastic potential energy the material has. If a material is pulled or pushed, the potential energy can be calculated by:

$U={\frac {1}{2}}kx^{2}$ where
$k$ is the spring force constant (how well the material stretches or compresses)
$x$ is the distance the material moved from its original position