Potential energy

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Any baryon is being sucked to its own centre, which, in its turn, is being sucked to the regional centre, which, in its turn, is being sucked to the universe's centre, which is the most negentropic (complex and interesting) structure in the universe—the planet Earth, or, more precisely, the man of the highest intuition.[1][2]
The gravitational potential energy of a galaxy is more negative than the mere sum of the negative gravitational potential energies of its stars (see Dark matter). Thus, the galaxy is holistic/synergetic, or, which is the same, animate.
The potential energy of the axon is more negative than the mere sum of the negative potential energies of the dendrites. That is why there is a flux from the dendrites (flux receivers) to the axon terminals (flux transmitters). Thus, the neuron is holistic/synergetic, or, which is the same, animate.

Potential energy is the energy that an object has because of its position on a gradient of potential energy called a potential field.[3][4]

  • Actual energy[5] is rotational kinetic energy[6] (E = hf), i.e. positive‑frequency angular momentum.[7] Actual energy is also known as transverse/relativistic[8]/inertial[9] mass, which increases with speed, so that the maximum speed of actual energy's propagation is the speed of light.
  • Potential energy is translational kinetic energy,[6] i.e. negative‑frequency angular momentum. Whereas a positive angular momentum is accompanied by a centrifugal force, a negative angular momentum is accompanied by a centripetal force. That is why negative potential energy is negative rest mass,[10] also known as gravitational mass—a physical quantity expressing a body's force of gravity. Potential energy (rest mass)[11] exists mostly in the form of baryons[12] and is maximal (i.e., zero) when baryons are translationally at rest, so that the volume of a baryon is infinitely big, while the spatial separation between the centres of baryons is infinitely large.[13] In the real world, potential energy is always negative,[14] and, because of that, has a negative inertia, which decreases (i.e., becomes more negative) with speed, so that potential energy self-accelerates to an infinite speed[15][16][17] and manifests itself as a centripetal suction.[18] exerted from the future.[19] Any object is being sucked to its own centre, which, in its turn, is being sucked to the regional centre, which, in its turn, is being sucked to the universe's centre, which is the most negentropic (complex and interesting) structure in the universe—the planet Earth, or, more precisely, the man of the highest intuition.[1][2] All motion in the universe, including all human emotions and thoughts, is caused by the suction He exerts from the future,[20] so that the entire 13.7‑billion‑year history of the universe is the process of His self‑assembly.

The potential fields are irrotationally radial ("electric") fluxes of the vacuum[21][22] and divide into two classes:

  • The gravitoelectric fields.[23]
  • The electric fields.[24]

Accordingly, the potential energy of the universe divides into two classes:

  • The gravitoelectric potential energy. Negative gravitoelectric potential energy exists as flux tubes called wormholes.[25]
  • The electric potential energy, also known as electric charge. An elementary positive charge, called a proton, is a region of high electric potential energy, while an elementary negative charge, called an electron, is a region of low electric potential energy. An electron is the exit mouth of a wormhole whose entry mouth is a proton.[26][27] Through that wormhole, the electron sucks potential energy (volume, rest mass)[13] from the proton, and emits the energy, in the form of photons, into the ambient space, so that the volume of the proton shrinks, while the volume of the ambient space expands.[28][29] This process is known as the accelerating expansion of the universe. By the end of time, protons will be completely converted into photons.[30]

In accordance with the minimum total potential energy principle, the universe's matter flows towards the minimum (i.e., the most negative) total potential energy. This cosmic flow is time, whereas the gradient of the universe's potential energy, down which the flow of time is being sucked,[18] is eternity or fate.[16][17]

The negative potential energies of homogeneously situated particles cancel each other, so that the total potential energy is zero. Conversely, the negative potential energies of hierarchically (dendritically) situated particles amplify each other, so that the total potential energy is more negative than the mere sum of the negative potential energies of the particles (see Binding energy). Thus, any negative-potential-energy hierarchy is holistic/synergetic, or, which is the same, animate, which implies that the universe's negative potential energy is the universe's spirit.[31][32] In accordance with the minimum total potential energy principle, the universe becomes ever more hierarchically animate.

Simple examples[change | change source]

Bringing a rock uphill consumes (negates) actual energy but increases (i.e., makes less negative) the rock's gravitoelectric potential energy.

Increasing the distance between two elementary electric charges of different signs (an electron and a proton) consumes (negates) external actual energy but increases (i.e., makes less negative) the electric potential energy of their mutual attraction.

Stretching a rubber band increases its elastic potential energy, which is a form of the electric potential energy. A mixture of a fuel and an oxidant has a chemical potential energy, which is another form of the electric potential energy. Batteries too have chemical potential energy.

Gravitational potential energy[change | change source]

Hyrdroelectric power plants use the gravitational potential energy of water (in the form of a difference in height) to produce electricity.

Gravitational potential energy is experienced by an object when height and mass is a factor in the system. Gravitational potential energy causes objects to move towards each other. If an object is lifted a certain distance from the surface from the Earth, the force experienced is caused by weight and height. Work is defined as force over a distance, and work is another word for energy. This means Gl Potential Energy is equal to:

where
is the force of gravity
is the change in height

or

Total work done by Gravitational Potential Energy in a moving object from position 1 to position 2 can be found by:

or

where
is the mass of the object
is the acceleration caused by gravity (constant)
is the first position
is the second position

Electric potential energy[change | change source]

Electric potential energy is experienced by charges both different and alike, as they repel or attract each other. Charges can either be positive (+) or negative (-), where opposite charges attract and similar charges repel. If two charges were placed a certain distance away from each other, the potential energy stored between the charges can be calculated by:

where
is 1/4πє (for air or vacuum it is )
is the first charge
is the second charge
is the distance apart

Elastic potential energy[change | change source]

Elastic potential energy is experienced when a rubbery material is pulled away or pushed together. The amount of potential energy the material has depends on the distance pulled or pushed. The longer the distance pushed, the greater the elastic potential energy the material has. If a material is pulled or pushed, the potential energy can be calculated by:

where
is the spring force constant (how well the material stretches or compresses)
is the distance the material moved from its original position

Related pages[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Gribbin, John. In Search of the Multiverse Penguin UK, 2009, pp. 131–32. "Any concentration of matter more compact than an infinitely dispersed cloud (even a cloud of gas containing one hydrogen molecule in every litre of space) must have less gravitational energy than an infinitely dispersed cloud, because, when material falls together energy is removed from the field. We start with zero energy and take some away, so we are left with negative energy. The negative energy of the gravitational field is what allows negative entropy, equivalent to information, to grow, making the Universe a more complicated and interesting place, with hot stars pouring out energy, on which planets like Earth can feed, as they attempt to redress the balance."
  2. 2.0 2.1 Farrell, Barry. The View from the Year 2000 LIFE Magazine, 26 February 1971. "The earth, to Fuller, is a ‘contracting phase’ of the universe, a low-pressure zone in the cosmos where energy is collected and stored. The sun's radiation warms the oceans, and the oceans feed the earth. Fuller calls processes which conserve energy aspects of ‘synergy’, a word he relies on heavily in his discussions of the ‘more‑with‑less’ technologies that will accomplish the defeat of scarcity. An example of synergetic action that Fuller is particularly fond of is the way chrome-nickel steel acquires, through chemical mating, a tensile strength greater than the sum of its components. But the highest expression of synergy is man's intuition, his ability to see comprehensive patterns in random events, which has led him from near helplessness to the point where he can now take control of his own evolution."
  3. Morrison, Faith A. An Introduction to Fluid Mechanics CUP, 2013, p. 442. "Energy may be stored in the state of a system—for example, as kinetic energy stored in the speed of the system, as potential energy stored in the position of the system in a potential field, or as internal energy stored in the chemical state of a system."
  4. Best, Myron G. Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology John Wiley & Sons, 2013, p. 21. "Potential energy can be equated with the amount of work required to move a body from one position to another in a potential field, in this instance, the gravitational field of the Earth."
  5. Skertchly, J. Alfred. Natural Philosophy. Part I. Mechanics Thomas Murby, 1873, p. 145. "Kinetic, or Actual, Energy is the amount of work a moving body is capable of doing at any instant."
  6. 6.0 6.1 Novello, M. VII Brazilian School of Cosmology and Gravitation, Rio de Janeiro, August 1993 Atlantica Séguier Frontières, 1994, p. 257. "In general, a system can have both translational and rotational accelerations, however. It follows from Einstein's principle of equivalence that locally—i.e., to the extent that spacetime curvature can be neglected—gravitational effects are the same as inertial effects; therefore, gravitation can be approximately described in terms of gravitoelectric and gravitomagnetic fields corresponding to translational and rotational inertia, respectively. This is the gravitational Larmor theorem, which is very useful in the post-Newtonian approximation to general relativity. The gravitomagnetic field of a massive rotating body is a measure of its absolute rotation."
  7. Biedenharn, L. C.; Louck, J. D. Angular Momentum in Quantum Physics Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., Advanced Book Program, 1981, p. 1. "The Planck quantum of action, h, has precisely the dimensions of an angular momentum, and, moreover, the Bohr quantization hypothesis specified the unit of (orbital) angular momentum to be ħ = h/2π. Angular momentum theory and quantum physics are thus clearly linked."
  8. Chaichian, Masud; Merches, Ioan; Radu, Daniel; Tureanu, Anca. Electrodynamics: An Intensive Course Springer, 2016, p. 404. "The concepts of longitudinal and transverse mass of the electron were introduced by Lorentz, in 1904, in his paper ‘Electromagnetic Phenomena in a System Moving with Any Velocity Less than That of Light’, in Proceedings of the Royal Academy of Amsterdam 6 (1904): 809.
    The so-called ‘transverse mass’ is traditionally named relativistic mass."
  9. Terletskii, Yakov P. Paradoxes in the Theory of Relativity Springer, 2013, p. 51. "The quantity m defined by (14.7) is called the inertial mass since it enters the equations of motion (14.9) in the same way as inertial mass enters the Newtonian equations of motion. Since the quantity m depends on the velocity, it is frequently called the relativistic mass."
  10. Davies, Paul. The Goldilocks Enigma: Why Our Universe Is Just Right for Life Mariner Books, 2008, p. 43. "Imagine trying to pluck the Earth out of its orbit around the sun. You would have to do work—that is, expend energy—to draw it away against the sun's gravitational pull. So the gravitational energy binding the Earth to the sun is negative (it requires work to sever the bond). If the gravitational field has negative energy, it must also have negative mass and must be subtracted from the positive mass-energy of the sun and planets."
  11. Heighway, Jack. Einstein, the Aether and Variable Rest Mass HeighwayPubs, 2011, p. 36. "Understanding why rest masses are reduced in a gravitational field only requires a simple insight: when an object is raised in a gravitational field, the gravitational potential energy increase is real, and exists as an increase, usually tiny, in the rest mass of the object."
  12. Gribbin, John. The Universe: A Biography Penguin, 2008. "The same processes that drove inflation may have been responsible for the production of the matter that makes up stars, planets and ourselves in the Universe today. Most of the mass of this everyday material is in the form of protons and neutrons (collectively known as baryons), which are themselves composed of quarks. The other important component of everyday matter is the lepton family, dominated today by electrons and neutrinos. Because of the overwhelming contribution of baryons to the mass of the visible Universe, however, everyday matter is often referred to simply as baryonic matter."
  13. 13.0 13.1 Mathews, Albert Prescott. The Nature of Matter, Gravitation, and Light W. Wood and Company, 1927, p. 106. "The quantity factor of potential energy is space or volume which however is equivalent to mass."
  14. Why is the Potential Energy Negative? HyperPhysics
  15. Hadronic Journal Supplement Vol. 14, Hadronic Press, 1999, p. 359. "Unfortunately a negative mass, with negative total energy, has a negative inertia so that it accelerates itself and the kinetic energy would tend to minus infinity."
  16. 16.0 16.1 TeGrotenhuis, Ward Evan. Brownian Dynamics of Colloidal Suspensions Vol. 1, University of California, Berkeley, 1990, p. 80. "The potential energy is the sum of direct interactions between the particles; this depends on the instantaneous configuration."
  17. 17.0 17.1 Larson, Dewey B. Beyond Newton: An Explanation of Gravitation. North Pacific Publishers, 1964. "Gravitational energy, or potential energy, is purely an energy of position; that is, for any two specific masses, the mutual gravitational potential energy is determined solely by their spatial separation. But energy of position in space cannot be propagated in space; the concept of transmitting this energy from one spatial location to another is totally incompatible with the fact that the magnitude of the energy is determined by the spatial location. Propagation of gravitation is therefore inherently impossible. The gravitational action is necessarily instantaneous as Newton's law indicates, and as has always been assumed for purposes of calculation."
  18. 18.0 18.1 Sachs, Paul D. Dynamics of a Natural Soil System Edaphic Press, 1999, p. 56. "The negative energy force that moves water is called suction."
  19. Skinner, Ray. Relativity for Scientists and Engineers Courier Corporation, 2014, pp. 188–89. "Finally, let us consider the use of a space-like energy-momentum transfer mechanism for sending signals that travel faster than light. By a signal, we mean a statement, possibly in some code, whose sense is not predetermined before the instant at which it is sent. A beam of negative energy that travels into the past can be generated by the acceleration of the source to high speeds. A beam of this sort could be used to send a signal into the past; if such signals were possible, we could determine the sense of the signal long before we decide upon the signal. This contradiction shows that we cannot use a negative-energy energy-momentum transfer mechanism to send signals. This does not mean that such energy-momentum transfers cannot occur; it means only that we cannot control those energy-momentum transfers to the extent that we can use them for signaling."
  20. Smith, Crosbie; Wise, M. Norton. Energy and Empire: A Biographical Study of Lord Kelvin CUP, 1989, p. 533. "Thomson had adopted in 1854 the view that ‘the potential energy of gravitation may be in reality the ultimate created antecedent of all the motion, heat, and light at present in the universe’. In other words, it was ‘the original form of all the energy in the universe’. [MPP. 2, 40; William Thomson and P.G. Tate, ‘Energy’, “Good Words”, 3 (1862), 601–7, on p. 606] Such a speculation conformed to his theology of nature in which God had created energy ex nihilo in the beginning by His absolute power and had sustained its quantity by His ordained power."
  21. Ziegler, Franz. Mechanics of Solids and Fluids Springer, 1995, p. 167. "Force in such a potential field is a flux in the sense of a mechanical driving agent."
  22. Volovik, G. E. The Universe in a Helium Droplet OUP, 2003, p. 60. "The non-viscous flow of the vacuum should be potential (irrotational)."
  23. Grøn, Øyvind; Hervik, Sigbjørn. Einstein's General Theory of Relativity with Modern Applications in Cosmology Springer, 2007, pp. 201, 203. "φ is the Newtonian or 'gravitoelectric' potential: φ = −Gm/r. ... In the Newtonian theory there will not be any gravitomagnetic effects; the Newtonian potential is the same irrespective of whether or not the body is rotating. Hence the gravitomagnetic field is a purely relativistic effect. The gravitoelectric field is the Newtonian part of the gravitational field, while the gravitomagnetic field is the non-Newtonian part."
  24. Soviet Physics, Uspekhi Vol. 40, issues 1–6, American Institute of Physics, 1997, p. 39. "From Maxwell equations (6.20) it follows that the electric field is potential: E(r) = −gradφ(r)."
  25. You can't get entangled without a wormhole: Physicist finds entanglement instantly gives rise to a wormhole ScienceDaily, 5 December 2013. "More fundamentally, the results suggest that gravity may, in fact, emerge from entanglement. What's more, the geometry, or bending, of the universe as described by classical gravity, may be a consequence of entanglement, such as that between pairs of particles strung together by tunneling wormholes."
  26. Preskill, John. Entanglement = Wormholes Quantum Frontiers, 7 June 2013. "Back in the 1950s, Wheeler held a passionate belief that ‘everything is geometry’, and one particularly intriguing idea he called ‘charge without charge’. There are no pointlike electric charges, Wheeler proclaimed; rather, electric field lines can thread the mouth of a wormhole. What looks to you like an electron is actually a tiny wormhole mouth. If you were small enough, you could dive inside the electron and emerge from a positron far away."
  27. Feynman, Richard. Nobel Lecture 11 December 1965. "As a by-product of this same view, I received a telephone call one day at the graduate college at Princeton from Professor Wheeler, in which he said, ‘Feynman, I know why all electrons have the same charge and the same mass’ ‘Why?’ ‘Because, they are all the same electron!’ And, then he explained on the telephone, ‘suppose that the world lines which we were ordinarily considering before in time and space—instead of only going up in time were a tremendous knot, and then, when we cut through the knot, by the plane corresponding to a fixed time, we would see many, many world lines and that would represent many electrons, except for one thing. If in one section this is an ordinary electron world line, in the section in which it reversed itself and is coming back from the future we have the wrong sign to the proper time—to the proper four velocities—and that’s equivalent to changing the sign of the charge, and, therefore, that part of a path would act like a positron.’ ‘But, Professor,’ I said, ‘there aren’t as many positrons as electrons.’ ‘Well, maybe they are hidden in the protons or something,’ he said."
  28. Clark, Stuart G. Life on Other Worlds and How to Find It Springer, 2000, p. 58. "Increasing the number of photons in the Universe increases the entropy of the Universe."
  29. Bekenstein, Jacob D. Information in the Holographic Universe Scientific American, 1 April 2007. "The entropy of a region uniformly filled with matter and radiation is truly proportional to its volume."
  30. Brooks, Michael. Roger Penrose: Non-stop cosmos, non-stop career New Scientist, 10 March 2010. "According to the standard view, dark energy will lead the universe into an eternal accelerating expansion. Every bit of matter will eventually lose contact with every other bit. ‘It all just seemed unbelievably boring to me,’ Penrose says. Then he found something interesting within it: at the very end of the universe, the only remaining particles will be massless. That means everything that exists will travel at the speed of light, making the flow of time meaningless. After a few mathematical manipulations of infinity, out popped a never‑ending universe, where new big bangs are the inevitable result of a universe’s demise. In Penrose’s theory, one cosmos leads to another. ‘I used to call it a crazy scheme, but I’m starting to believe it now,’ he says."
  31. Max Planck, in "The Nature of Matter" (Das Wesen der Materie), a 1944 speech in Florence, Italy, Archiv zur Geschichte der Max‑Planck‑Gesellschaft, Abt. Va, Rep. 11 Planck, Nr. 1797; the German original is quoted in The Spontaneous Healing of Belief (2008) by Gregg Braden, p. 212. "As a man who has devoted his whole life to the most clearheaded science, to the study of matter, I can tell you as a result of my research about the atoms this much: There is no matter as such! All matter originates and exists only by virtue of a force which brings the particles of an atom to vibration and holds this most minute solar system of the atom together. . . . We must assume behind this force the existence of a conscious and intelligent Spirit. This Spirit is the matrix of all matter."
  32. Reyna, Ruth. The Philosophy of Matter in the Atomic Era: A New Approach to the Philosophy of Science Asia Publishing House, 1962, p. 120. "As I see it, soul is as much a physical phenomenon as are any of the other of our scientific concepts; therefore, science should not be squeamish about dealing with the term. … Soul, then, is a scientific construct, the ‘binding energy’ that makes up and holds together the composite, thinking, reasoning animal called ‘man’. It is what religionist-paleontologist Pierre Teilhard means by ‘the unity that holds matter together’."