Actual energy is exergy—condensed and/or hierarchized energy, which can act (i.e., can do work).
In the ultimate analysis, all potential energy is gravitational, while other potential energies, such as the strong-force potential energy and the electric potential energy, are temporary masks of the gravitational potential energy. Gravity condenses and hierarchizes anergy (potential energy) into exergy (actual energy).
Potential energy is the energy of locality (spatial separateness):
Gravitational energy, or potential energy, is purely an energy of position; that is, for any two specific masses, the mutual gravitational potential energy is determined solely by their spatial separation. But energy of position in space cannot be propagated in space; the concept of transmitting this energy from one spatial location to another is totally incompatible with the fact that the magnitude of the energy is determined by the spatial location. Propagation of gravitation is therefore inherently impossible. The gravitational action is necessarily instantaneous as Newton's law indicates, and as has always been assumed for purposes of calculation.
- —Larson, Dewey B. Beyond Newton: An Explanation of Gravitation. North Pacific Publishers, 1964
At that, potential energy is negative. It is not a mere convention but a consequence of conservation of energy in the zero-energy universe—as the universe's matter descends into its own gravitational potential field, the matter's actual energy becomes more positive, while its potential energy becomes more negative, so that the universe's matter loses its rest mass and becomes increasingly nonlocal, i.e. increasingly capable of teleportation.
Simple examples[change | change source]
Bringing a rock uphill increases (i.e., makes less negative) its gravitoelectric potential energy. Stretching a rubber band increases its elastic potential energy, which is a form of the electric potential energy. A mixture of a fuel and an oxidant has a chemical potential energy, which is another form of the electric potential energy. Batteries too have chemical potential energy.
Gravitational potential energy[change | change source]
Gravitational potential energy is experienced by an object when height and mass is a factor in the system. Gravitational potential energy causes objects to move towards each other. If an object is lifted a certain distance from the surface from the Earth, the force experienced is caused by weight and height. Work is defined as force over a distance, and work is another word for energy. This means Gl Potential Energy is equal to:
- is the force of gravity
- is the change in height
Total work done by Gravitational Potential Energy in a moving object from position 1 to position 2 can be found by:
- is the mass of the object
- is the acceleration caused by gravity (constant)
- is the first position
- is the second position
Electric potential energy[change | change source]
Electric potential energy is experienced by charges both different and alike, as they repel or attract each other. Charges can either be positive (+) or negative (-), where opposite charges attract and similar charges repel. If two charges were placed a certain distance away from each other, the potential energy stored between the charges can be calculated by:
- is 1/4πє (for air or vacuum it is )
- is the first charge
- is the second charge
- is the distance apart
Elastic potential energy[change | change source]
Elastic potential energy is experienced when a rubbery material is pulled away or pushed together. The amount of potential energy the material has depends on the distance pulled or pushed. The longer the distance pushed, the greater the elastic potential energy the material has. If a material is pulled or pushed, the potential energy can be calculated by:
- is the spring force constant (how well the material stretches or compresses)
- is the distance the material moved from its original position
Related pages[change | change source]
References[change | change source]
- Larson, Dewey B. Beyond Newton: An Explanation of Gravitation. North Pacific Publishers, 1964. "Energy is defined as the capability of doing work. Kinetic energy, for example, qualifies under this definition, and hence any kind of energy that can be converted to kinetic energy also qualifies. But gravitational energy is not capable of “doing work” as a general proposition. It will do one thing and one thing only: it will move masses inward toward each other. If this motion is permitted to take place, the resulting decrease in gravitational energy makes its appearance as kinetic energy and the latter can then be utilized in the normal manner, but unless gravitation is allowed to do this one thing which it is capable of doing, the gravitational energy is completely unavailable; it cannot do anything itself, nor can it be converted to any form of energy that can do something."
- Shu, Frank H. The Physical Universe: An Introduction to Astronomy. University Science Books, 1982, p. 157. "Concluding Philosophical Comment.
Zeldovich and Novikov have made the following intriguing philosophical point about the picture of the formation of a neutron star sketched here. They note that stars begin their lives as a mixture mostly of hydrogen nuclei and their stripped electrons. During a massive star's luminous phase, the protons are combined by a variety of complicated reactions into heavier and heavier elements. The nuclear binding energy released this way ultimately provides entertainment and employment for astronomers. In the end, however, the supernova process serves to undo most of this nuclear evolution. In the end, the core forms a mass of neutrons. Now, the final state, neutrons, contains less nuclear binding energy than the initial state, protons, and electrons. So where did all the energy come from when the star was shining all those millions of years? Where did the energy come from to produce the sound and the fury which is a supernova explosion? Energy is conserved; who paid the debts at the end? Answer: gravity! The gravitational potential energy of the final neutron star is much greater (negatively; that's the debt) than the gravitational potential energy of the corresponding main-sequence star (Problem 8.7). So, despite all the intervening interesting nuclear physics, ultimately Kelvin and Helmholtz were right after all! The ultimate energy source in the stars which produce the greatest amount of energy is gravity power. This is an important moral worth remembering and savoring. If we regard the neutron star as one gigantic atomic nucleus, we may also say that nuclear processes plus gravity have succeeded in converting many atomic nuclei into one nucleus. Problem 8.7 then shows that the ultimate energy source for the entire output of the star is the relativistic binding energy of the final end state."
- Why is the Potential Energy Negative? HyperPhysics
- Heighway, Jack. Einstein, the Aether and Variable Rest Mass. HeighwayPubs, 2011, p. 36. "Understanding why rest masses are reduced in a gravitational field only requires a simple insight: when an object is raised in a gravitational field, the gravitational potential energy increase is real, and exists as an increase, usually tiny, in the rest mass of the object."
- Battersby, Stephen. Big Bang glow hints at funnel-shaped Universe. New Scientist, 15 April 2004
- Gribbin, John. In Search of the Multiverse. Penguin UK, 2009, p. 131. "Any concentration of matter more compact than an infinitely dispersed cloud (even a cloud of gas containing one hydrogen molecule in every litre of space) must have less gravitational energy than an infinitely dispersed cloud, because, when material falls together energy is removed from the field. We start with zero energy and take some away, so we are left with negative energy. The negative energy of the gravitational field is what allows negative entropy, equivalent to information, to grow, making the Universe a more complicated and interesting place, with hot stars pouring out energy, on which planets like Earth can feed, as they attempt to redress the balance."
- ENIAC: The Birth of the Information Age. Popular Science, March 1996
- The ENIAC Effect: Dawn of the Information Age. ENIAC Museum
- Chardin, Pierre Teilhard de. Man's Place in Nature. Collins, 1973, p. 100
- Chardin, Pierre Teilhard de. The Phenomenon of Man. 1955, p. 306
- Chardin, Pierre Teilhard de. The Phenomenon of Man. 1955, p. 172