President of El Salvador

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President of the
Republic of El Salvador
Presidente de la República de El Salvador
Seal of the President of El Salvador.svg
Presidential Seal
Nayib Bukele (cropped).jpg
Incumbent
Nayib Bukele

since 1 June 2019
ResidenceCasa Presidencial, San Salvador
Term lengthFive years, not eligible for re-election immediately
Inaugural holderJuan Lindo
Formation22 February 1841
DeputyVice President of El Salvador
WebsitePresident of El Salvador

The President of El Salvador (Spanish: Presidente de El Salvador) officially known as the President of the Republic of El Salvador (Spanish: Presidente de la República de El Salvador) is the head of state of El Salvador. The office was created in the Constitution of 1841. From 1821 until 1841, the head of state of El Salvador was styled simply as Head of State (Jefe de Estado).

Heads of State of El Salvador within the Federal Republic of Central America (1821–1841)[change | change source]

Intendants Political Leaders of the Province of San Salvador.[change | change source]

  Independent (5)
No. Name
(Birth–Death)
Portrait Term of Office Political Affiliation
1 Pedro Barriere
(?–1827)
PEDRO BARRIERE.jpg 21 September 1821 28 November 1821 Independent
2 José Matías Delgado
(1767–1832)
Primergrito ahumada.JPG 28 November 1821 9 February 1823 Independent
3 Vicente Filísola
(1789–1850)
Vicente Filisola.jpg 9 February 1823 7 May 1823 Independent
4 Felipe Codallos
(1790–?)
Coat of arms of El Salvador.svg 7 May 1823 25 May 1823 Independent

Advisory Junta Coat of arms of El Salvador.svg 25 May 1823 17 June 1823 Advisory Junta
5 Mariano Padro
(1776–1837)
Coat of arms of El Salvador.svg 17 June 1823 22 April 1824 Independent
Head of State of El Salvador
  Independent (14)     

  Conservative (5)        Liberal (9)

No. Name
(Birth–Death)
Portrait Term of Office Political Affiliation
1 Juan Manuel Rodríguez
(1771–1847)
22 April 1824 1 October 1824 Independent
Mariano Prado
(1776–1837)
Acting Head of State
1 October 1824 13 December 1824 Liberal
2 Juan Vicente Villacorta Díaz
(1764–1828)
Coat of arms of El Salvador.svg 13 December 1824 1 November 1826 Liberal
Mariano Prado
(1776–1837)
Acting Head of State
1 November 1826 30 January 1829 Liberal
3 José María Cornejo
(1788–1864)
Coat of arms of El Salvador.svg 30 January 1829 16 February 1830 Conservative
4 José Damián Villacorta
(1796–1860)
Coat of arms of El Salvador.svg 16 February 1830 4 December 1830 Independent
5 José María Cornejo
(1788–1864)
Coat of arms of El Salvador.svg 4 December 1830 3 April 1832 Conservative
Francisco Morazán
(1792–1842)
Provisional Head of State
General Francisco Morazán.JPG 3 April 1832 13 May 1832 Liberal
Joaquín de San Martín
(1770–1854)
Acting Head of State
13 May 1832 25 July 1832 Conservative
6 Mariano Prado
(1776–1837)
25 July 1832 1 July 1833 Liberal
7 Joaquín de San Martín
(1770–1854)
1 July 1833 23 July 1834 Conservative
Carlos Salazar Castro
(1800–1867)
Provisional Head of State
23 June 1834 13 July 1834 Independent
José Gregorio Salazar
(1773–1838)
Provisional Head of State
Coat of arms of El Salvador.svg 13 July 1834 30 September 1834 Independent
8 Joaquín Escolán y Balibrera
(?–?)
Coat of arms of El Salvador.svg 30 September 1834 13 October 1834 Independent
José María Silva
(1804–1876)
Acting Head of State
Coat of arms of El Salvador.svg 13 October 1834 2 March 1835 Independent
9 Joaquín Escolán y Balibrera
(?–?)
Coat of arms of El Salvador.svg 2 March 1835 10 April 1835 Independent
10 Nicolás Espinoza
(1795–1845)
Nicolás Espinoza.jpg 10 April 1835 15 November 1835 Liberal
Francisco Gómez
(1796–1838)
Acting Head of State
Francisco Gómez.jpg 15 November 1835 1 February 1836 Independent
11 Diego Vigil Cocaña
(1799–1845)
Dvijil.JPG 1 February 1836 23 May 1837 Liberal
12 Timoteo Menéndez
(?–?)
Coat of arms of El Salvador.svg 23 May 1837 7 June 1837 Independent
13 Diego Vigil Cocaña
(1799–1845)
Dvijil.JPG 7 June 1837 6 January 1838 Liberal
14 Timoteo Menéndez
(?–?)
Coat of arms of El Salvador.svg 6 January 1838 23 May 1838 Independent
Antonio José Cañas
(1785–1844)
Acting Head of State
Antonio-José-Cañas.jpg 23 May 1838 11 July 1839 Independent
15 Francisco Morazán
(1792–1842)
General Francisco Morazán.JPG 11 July 1839 16 February 1840 Liberal
José María Silva
(1804–1876)
Acting Head of State
Coat of arms of El Salvador.svg 16 February 1840 5 April 1840 Independent
Antonio José Cañas
(1785–1844)
Provisional Head of State
Antonio-José-Cañas.jpg 5 April 1840 20 September 1840 Independent
Norberto Ramírez
(1802–1856)
Provisional Head of State
Coat of arms of El Salvador.svg 20 September 1840 7 January 1841 Independent
Juan Lindo
(1790–1857)
Provisional Head of State
Juan Lindo00001.JPG 7 January 1841 22 February 1841 Conservative
16 Juan Lindo (1790–1857) Head of State 22 February 1841 22 February 1841 Independent

Presidents of the Independent Republic of El Salvador (1841–present)[change | change source]

  Independent (17)     

  Conservative (13)        Liberal (14)        NDP (4)        Labor (1)        PPP (2)        Military (16)        USDP (1)

  DPNU (2)     

  NCP (4)        DAP (1)        CDP (1)        ARENA (4)        FMLN (2)        GANA (1)

No. Name
(Birth–Death)
Portrait Term of Office Political Affiliation
1 Juan Lindo
(1790–1857)
Juan Lindo00001.JPG 22 February 1841 20 June 1841 Conservative
2 Pedro José Acre
(1801–1871)
Coat of arms of El Salvador.svg 20 June 1841 28 June 1841 Independent
1 Juan Lindo
(1790–1857)
Juan Lindo00001.JPG 28 June 1841 1 February 1842 Conservative
3 José Escolástico Marín
(?–1846)
Escolastico Marín.jpg 1 February 1842 14 April 1842 Independent
4 Juan José Guzmán
(1800–1847)
Presidente de la República de El Salvador Lic. Juan José Guzmán.jpg 14 April 1842 1 February 1844 Conservative
5 Fermín Palacios

(?-?)

Fermín Palacios.jpg 1 February 1844 7 February 1844 Independent
6 Francisco Malespín
(1806–1846)
Francisco Malespín.jpg 7 February 1844 15 February 1845 Conservative
7 Joaquín Eufrasio Guzmán
(1801–1875)
Coat of arms of El Salvador.svg 15 February 1845 1 February 1846 Independent
5 Fermín Palacios

(?-?)

Fermín Palacios.jpg 1 February 1846 21 February 1846 Independent
8 Eugenio Aguilar
(1804–1879)
Eugenio Aguilar Gonzalez Batres.jpg 21 February 1846 1 February 1848 Liberal
9 Tomás Medina
(1803–1884)
Tomás Medina.jpg 1 February 1848 3 February 1848 Independent
10 José Félix Quirós
(1811–1883)
Coat of arms of El Salvador.svg 3 February 1848 7 February 1848 Independent
11 Doroteo Vasconcelos
(1803–1883)
Doroteo Vasconcelos.jpg 7 February 1848 1 February 1850 Liberal
12 Ramón Rodríguez

(?-?)

Coat of arms of El Salvador.svg 1 February 1850 4 February 1850 Independent
11 Doroteo Vasconcelos
(1803–1883)
Doroteo Vasconcelos.jpg 4 February 1850 1 March 1851 Liberal
13 José Félix Quirós
(1811–1883)
Coat of arms of El Salvador.svg 1 March 1851 3 May 1851 Independent
14 Francisco Dueñas
(1810–1884)
Francisco Dueñas.jpg 13 May 1851 30 January 1852 Conservative
15 José María San Martín
(1811–1857)
Colonel José María de San Martín.png 30 January 1852 1 February 1852 Conservative
14 Francisco Dueñas
(1810–1884)
Francisco Dueñas.jpg 1 February 1852 1 February 1854 Conservative
16 Vicente Gómez

(?-?)

Coat of arms of El Salvador.svg 1 February 1854 15 February 1854 Independent
15 José María San Martín
(1811–1857)
Colonel José María de San Martín.png 15 February 1854 1 February 1856 Conservative
14 Francisco Dueñas
(1810–1884)
Francisco Dueñas.jpg 1 February 1856 12 February 1856 Conservative
17 Rafael Campo
(1813–1890)
Rafael Campo.jpg 12 February 1856 1 February 1858 Conservative
18 Lorenzo Zepeda

(?-?)

Coat of arms of El Salvador.svg 1 February 1858 7 February 1858 Independent
19 Miguel Santín del Castillo
(1830–1880)
87 Miguel Santin del Castillo.jpg 7 February 1858 24 January 1859 Conservative
20 Joaquín Eufrasio Guzmán
(1801–1875)
Acting President
Coat of arms of El Salvador.svg 24 January 1859 15 February 1859 Independent
21 José María Peralta
(1807–1883)
Coat of arms of El Salvador.svg 15 February 1859 12 March 1859 Independent
22 Gerardo Barrios
(1813–1865)
GBarrios.jpg 12 March 1859 26 October 1863 Liberal
14 Francisco Dueñas
(1810–1884)
Francisco Dueñas.jpg 26 October 1863 15 April 1871 Conservative
23 Santiago González
(1818–1887)
Santiago gonzalez.jpg 15 April 1871 1 February 1876 Liberal
24 Andrés del Valle
(1833–1888)
Andresdelvalle.jpg 1 February 1876 1 May 1876 Liberal
25 Rafael Zaldívar
(1834–1903)
Rafael Zaldivar.jpg 1 May 1876 6 April 1884 Liberal
26 Ángel Guirola
(1826–1910)
Angel Guirola.png 6 April 1884 21 August 1884 Independent
25 Rafael Zaldívar
(1834–1903)
Rafael Zaldivar.jpg 21 August 1884 14 May 1885 Liberal
27 Fernando Figueroa
(1849–1919)
Illus-059 (Salvador, 20th Century).jpg 14 May 1885 18 June 1885 Military /
Liberal
28 José Rosales
(1827–1891)
Jose Rosales.png 18 June 1885 22 June 1885 Independent
29 Francisco Menéndez
(1830–1890)
Francisco Menéndez.jpg 22 June 1885 22 June 1890 Military /
Liberal
30 Carlos Ezeta
(1852–1903)
Carlos Ezeta.jpg 22 June 1890 9 June 1894 Military /
Liberal
31 Rafael Antonio Gutiérrez
(1845–1921)
Rafael A. Gutierrez.jpg 10 June 1894 13 November 1898 Military /
Liberal
32 Tomás Regalado
(1861–1906)
Tomás Regalado.jpg 14 November 1898 1 March 1903 Military /
Liberal
33 Pedro José Escalón
(1847–1923)
Escalon.jpg 1 March 1903 1 March 1907 Military /
Conservative
27 Fernando Figueroa
(1849–1919)
Illus-059 (Salvador, 20th Century).jpg 1 March 1907 1 March 1911 Military /
Liberal
34 Manuel Enrique Araujo
(1865–1913)
Manuel Enrique Araujo 01.jpg 1 March 1911 8 February 1913 Independent
35 Carlos Meléndez Ramirez
(1861–1919)
Carlos Meléndez.jpg 9 February 1913 29 August 1914 National Democratic Party
36 Alfonso Quiñónez Molina
(1874–1950)
Alfonso Quiñónez Molina 1915.jpg 29 August 1914 1 March 1915 National Democratic Party
35 Carlos Meléndez Ramirez
(1861–1919)
Carlos Meléndez.jpg 1 March 1915 21 December 1918 National Democratic Party
36 Alfonso Quiñónez Molina
(1874–1950)
Acting President
Alfonso Quiñónez Molina 1915.jpg 21 December 1918 1 March 1919 National Democratic Party
37 Jorge Meléndez
(1871–1953)
62 Jorge Melendez.jpg 1 March 1919 1 March 1923 National Democratic Party
36 Alfonso Quiñónez Molina
(1874–1950)
Alfonso Quiñónez Molina 1915.jpg 1 March 1923 1 March 1927 National Democratic Party
38 Pío Romero Bosque
(1860–1935)
Dr. Pio Romero Bosque.jpg 1 March 1927 1 March 1931 National Democratic Party
39 Arturo Araujo
(1878–1967)
Arturo Araujo Fajardo.jpg 1 March 1931 2 December 1931 Labor Party
40 National Guard Colonel Joaquín Valdés 2 December 1931 2 December 1931 military
41 Colonel Juan Vicente Vidal 2 December 1931 2 December 1931 military
42 First Infantry Regiment Captain Manuel Urbina. 2 December 1931 2 December 1931 military
43 Captain Visitation Antonio Pacheco 2 December 1931 2 December 1931 military
43 Lieutenant Joaquín Castro Canizales 2 December 1931 2 December 1931 military
44 Artillery Regiment Lieutenant Carlos Rodríguez 3 December 1931 3 December 1931 military
45 Sub Lieutenant Julio Cañas 3 December 1931 3 December 1931 military
46 First Machine Gun Regiment Second Lieutenant José Alonso Huezo 3 December 1931 3 December 1931 military
47 Second Lieutenant Miguel Hernández Saldaña 3 December 1931 3 December 1931 military
48 Cavalry Regiment Second Lieutenant Héctor Montalvo. 3 December 1931 3 December 1931 military
49 Military Aviation Second Lieutenant Juan Ramón Munés 4 December 1931 4 December 1931 military
50 Ministry of War Coronel Osmín Aguirre y Salinas 4 December 1931 4 December 1931 military
military


2 December 1931 4 December 1931 The Civic Directory governed El Salvador from 2 to 4 December 1931 . Composed entirely of military, the civic directory began the era of military dictatorships. The civic directory ended its government when the Presidency of the Republic was handed over to Vice President Maximiliano Hernández Martínez , who would later perpetrate a massacre in 1932. The civic directory was formed by (according to the military organization to which they belonged)
51 Maximiliano Hernández Martínez
(1882–1966)
Hernandez Martinez.jpg 4 December 1931 28 August 1934 Military /
National Pro Patria Party
52 Andrés Ignacio Menéndez
(1879–1962)
Provisional President
67 General Andres I. Menendez.jpg 29 August 1934 1 March 1935 Military /
National Pro Patria Party
51 Maximiliano Hernández Martínez
(1882–1966)
Hernandez Martinez.jpg 1 March 1935 9 May 1944 Military /
National Pro Patria Party
52 Andrés Ignacio Menéndez
(1879–1962)
Provisional President
67 General Andres I. Menendez.jpg 9 May 1944 20 October 1944 Military /
National Pro Patria Party
50 Osmín Aguirre y Salinas
(1889–1977)
Provisional President
Coronel Osmin Aguirre.jpg 21 October 1944 1 March 1945 Military
53 Salvador Castaneda Castro
(1888–1965)
Gral-castaneda.jpg 1 March 1945 14 December 1948 Military /
Unification Social Democratic Party
54 Manuel de Jesús Córdova (b. 1911 .d. 1999) 14 December 1948 15 December 1948 Revolutionary Council of Government
55 Óscar A. Bolaños (b. 1912 d. 2011) 15 December 1948 15 December 1948 Revolutionary Council of Government
56 Óscar Osorio (b. 1910 - d. 1969) 15 December 1948 15 December 1949 Revolutionary Council of Government
57 Reynaldo Galindo Pohl (b. 1918 - d. 2012) 15 December 1949 15 December 1949 Revolutionary Council of Government
58 Humberto Costa (b. 1906 - d.2017)
Coat of arms of El Salvador.svg 15 December 1949 14 September 1950 Revolutionary Council of Government
56 Óscar Osorio
(1910–1969)
Oscar Osorio.jpg 14 September 1950 14 September 1956 Military /
Revolutionary Party of Democratic Unification
59 José María Lemus
(1911–1993)
Jose M. Lemus.jpg 14 September 1956 26 October 1960 Military /
Revolutionary Party of Democratic Unification
60 Miguel Ángel Castillo (b. 1915 - d. 1999) 26 October 1960 26 October 1960 Revolutionary Council of Governmen
61 Fabio Castillo Figueroa (b. 1921 - d. 2012) 26 October 1960 26 October 1960 Revolutionary Council of Governmen
62 Ricardo Falla Cáceres (b. 1921) 26 October 1960 26 October 1960 Revolutionary Council of Governmen
63 René Fortín Magaña (b. 1931) 26 October 1960 26 October 1960 Revolutionary Council of Governmen
64 Rubén Alonso Rosales (b. 1925) 26 October 1960 2 January 1961 Revolutionary Council of Governmen
65 Cnel César Yanes Uriah 2 January 1961 25 January 1961 Revolutionary Council of Governmen
66 Aníbal Portillo (whole time) 25 January 1961 25 January 1961 Revolutionary Council of Governmen
67 Feliciano Avelar (whole time) 25 January 1961 25 January 1961 Revolutionary Council of Governmen
68 José Antonio Rodríguez Porth 25 January 1961 6 April 1961 Junta of Government
69 Mariano Castro Morán 6 April 1961 6 April 1961 Junta of Government
70 José Francisco Valiente 6 April 1961 11 September 1961 Junta of Government
71 Julio Adalberto Rivera Carballo Coat of arms of El Salvador.svg 26 October 1960 25 January 1961 Junta of Government
72 Civic-Military Directory Coat of arms of El Salvador.svg 25 January 1961 25 January 1962 Civic-Military Directory
73 Eusebio Rodolfo Cordón Cea
(1899–1966)
Rodolfo Cordon.jpg 25 January 1962 1 July 1962 Independent
71 Julio Adalberto Rivera Carballo
(1921–1973)
Copia de Coronel Julio Adalberto Rivera.jpg 1 July 1962 1 July 1967 Military /
National Coalition Party
74 Fidel Sánchez Hernández
(1917–2003)
Coat of arms of El Salvador.svg 1 July 1967 1 July 1972 Military /
National Coalition Party
75 Arturo Armando Molina
(born 1927)
Coronel Arturo Molina.png 1 July 1972 1 July 1977 Military /
National Coalition Party
58 Carlos Humberto Romero
(1924–2017)
Carlos Humberto Romero.jpg 1 July 1977 15 October 1979 Military /
National Coalition Party
76 Adolfo Arnoldo Majano Ramos (b. 1938) 15 October 1979 15 October 1979 Revolutionary Government Junta of El Salvador
77 Jaime Abdul Gutiérrez Avendaño (b. 1936 - d. 2012) 15 October 1979 15 October 1979 Revolutionary Government Junta of El Salvador
78 Román Mayorga Quirós 15 October 1979 15 October 1979 Revolutionary Government Junta of El Salvador
79 Guillermo Ungo (b. 1931 - d. 1991) 15 October 1979 5 January 1980 Revolutionary Government Junta of El Salvador
80 Marco Antonio Andino (b. 1936 - d. 2014) 5 January 1980 31 January 1980 Revolutionary Government Junta of El Salvador
81 José Antonio Morales Ehrlich (b. 1935) 31 January 1980 30 January 1980 Revolutionary Government Junta of El Salvador
82 José Ramón Ávalos Navarrete (b. 1938) 30 January 1980 30 January 1980 Revolutionary Government Junta of El Salvador
83 Héctor Miguel Antonio Dada Hirezi (b. 1938 d. 2012)        30 January 1980 2 May 1980 Revolutionary Government Junta of El Salvador
84 Revolutionary Government Junta Coat of arms of El Salvador.svg 15 October 1979 2 May 1982 Revolutionary Government Junta
85 José Napoleón Duarte (b. 1925 - d. 1990) 2 May 1980 2 May 1982 Democratic Action Party
86 Álvaro Magaña
(1925–2001)
Alvaro Magaña.jpg 2 May 1982 1 June 1984 Democratic Action Party
85 José Napoleón Duarte
(1925–1990)
José Napoleón Duarte 1987c.jpg 1 June 1984 1 June 1989 Christian Democratic Party
87 Alfredo Cristiani
(born 1947)
Alfredo Cristiani.jpg 1 June 1989 1 June 1994 Nationalist Republican Alliance
89 Armando Calderón Sol
(1948–2017)
Coat of arms of El Salvador.svg 1 June 1994 1 June 1999 Nationalist Republican Alliance
90 Francisco Flores Pérez
(1959–2016)
President Francisco Flores El Salvador1.jpg 1 June 1999 1 June 2004 Nationalist Republican Alliance
91 Antonio Saca
(born 1965)
Antonio Saca.png 1 June 2004 1 June 2009 Nationalist Republican Alliance
92 Mauricio Funes
(born 1959)
Mauricio Funes (Brasilia, May 2008).jpg 1 June 2009 1 June 2014 Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front
93 Salvador Sánchez Cerén
(born 1944)
Salvador Sanchez Ceren.jpg 1 June 2014 1 June 2019 Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front
94 Nayib Bukele
(born 1981)
Nayib Bukele (cropped).jpg 1 June 2019 Incumbent Grand Alliance for National Unity

Latest election[change | change source]

Candidate Party First round
Votes %
Nayib Bukele Grand Alliance for National Unity (GANA) 1,434,856 53.10
Carlos Calleja Nationalist Republican Alliance (ARENA) 857,084 31.72
Hugo Martínez Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (FMLN) 389,289 14.41
Josué Alvarado VAMOS 20,763 0.77
Invalid/blank votes 31,186
Total 2,733,178 100
Registered voters/turnout 5,268,411 51.88
Source: TSE [1], [2]

Living former presidents[change | change source]

Intendant and Superior Political Chief 21 Sep 1821 – 28 November 1821 Pedro Barriere (b. ... - d. 1827) Intendant and Governor (from 11 January 1822, President of the Junta of Government) 28 Nov 1821 - 9 February 1823 José Matías Delgado (b. 1767 - d. 1832) Supreme Political Chief Chief of State 22 Apr 1824 - 1 October 1824

The Civic Directory governed El Salvador from 2 to 4 December 1931 . Composed entirely of military, the civic directory began the era of military dictatorships. The civic directory ended its government when the Presidency of the Republic was handed over to Vice President Maximiliano Hernández Martínez , who would later perpetrate a massacre in 1932. The civic directory was formed by (according to the military organization to which they belonged):

National Guard :

  • Colonel Joaquín Valdés.
  • Colonel Juan Vicente Vidal

First Infantry Regiment :

  • Captain Manuel Urbina.
  • Captain Visitation Antonio Pacheco
  • Lieutenant Joaquín Castro Canizales

First Artillery Regiment :

  • Lieutenant Carlos Rodríguez
  • Sub Lieutenant Julio Cañas

First Machine Gun Regiment :

  • Second Lieutenant José Alonso Huezo
  • Second Lieutenant Miguel Hernández Saldaña

Cavalry Regiment :

  • Second Lieutenant Héctor Montalvo.

Ministry of War :

  • Coronel Osmín Aguirre and Salinas

Military Aviation :

  • Second Lieutenant Juan Ramón Munés


See also.[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

Other websites[change | change source]

  • "El Presidencia de El Salvador". Archived from the original on 15 April 2015. (Spanish)