El Salvador

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Republic of El Salvador
República de El Salvador
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: "Dios, Unión, Libertad"  (Spanish)
"God, Unity, Freedom"
Anthem: Himno Nacional de El Salvador
National anthem of El Salvador
Capital
and largest city
San Salvador
13°40′N 89°10′W / 13.667°N 89.167°W / 13.667; -89.167
Official languages Spanish
Ethnic groups Mestizo: 80%

White: 17%

Black: 0%

Native american: 1%

Other: 2%
Demonym Salvadoran
Government Federal presidential constitutional republic
 -  President Salvador Cerén (F)
 -  Vice President Óscar Ortiz (F)
 -  Speaker of the Assembly Sigfrido Morales (F)
 -  Supreme Court President Judge Belarmino Jaime
Legislature Legislative Assembly
Independence
 -  from Spain September 15, 1821 
 -  Recognized by Spain June 24, 1865 
 -  from the Greater Republic of Central America November 13, 1898 
Area
 -  Total 21,040 km2 (153rd)
8,124 sq mi
 -  Water (%) 1.4
Population
 -  July 2009 estimate 6,134,000[1] (99th)
 -  2009 census 5,744,113[2]
 -  Density 341.5/km2 (47th)
884.4/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2010 estimate
 -  Total $43.567 billion[3]
 -  Per capita $7,429[3]
GDP (nominal) 2010 estimate
 -  Total $21.700 billion[3]
 -  Per capita $3,700[3]
Gini (2002) 52.4
high
HDI (2015) Increase 0.704[4]
high · 90th
Currency U.S. dollar2 (USD)
Time zone CST (UTC−6)
Drives on the right
Calling code +5031
Internet TLD .sv
1. Telephone companies (market share): Tigo (45%), Claro (25%), Movistar (24%), Digicel (5.5%), Red (0.5%).
2. The United States dollar is the currency in use. Financial information can be expressed in U.S. Dollars and in Salvadoran colón, but the colón is out of circulation.[5]
3. On the Coat of Arms of El Salvador, the country's name is written "Republica de El Salvador en la America Central", Meaning "Republic of El Salvador in Central America"

El Salvador (Spanish: República de El Salvador) is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America. The country's capital and largest city is San Salvador. Other important cities are: Santa Ana and San Miguel. El Salvador borders the Pacific Ocean on the south, and the countries of Guatemala to the west and Honduras to the north and east.

In 2010 El Salvador ranked in the top 10 Latin American countries in terms of Human Development Index. It was in the top 3 in Central America (behind Costa Rica and Panama). Also, tropical forests and overall forests have expanded by nearly 20% from the year 1992 to 2010, making it one of the few countries experiencing reforestation.[6]

In El Salvador there are only two seasons. The dry season starts in mid-October and it lasts until mid May. During the dry season, it hardly ever rains. The wet season starts in mid-May and ends in mid-October. In this season it rains every day. The dry season is called summer and the rainy season is called winter.

Most of the population is mestizo, a mixture of European and American people.

Departments[change | change source]

El Salvador is divided into 14 departments (departamentos). These are divided into 262 municipalities (municipios).

Department names and abbreviations for the 14 Salvadoran Departments:

Departments of El Salvador
Political division of El Salvador.
Western El Salvador
Ahuachapán (Ahuachapán)
Santa Ana (Santa Ana)
Sonsonate (Sonsonate)
Central El Salvador
La Libertad(Santa Tecla)
Chalatenango (Chalatenango)
Cuscatlán (Cojutepeque)
San Salvador (San Salvador)
La Paz (Zacatecoluca)
Cabañas (Sensuntepeque)
San Vicente (San Vicente)
Eastern El Salvador
Usulután (Usulután)
San Miguel (San Miguel)
Morazán (San Francisco Gotera)
La Unión (La Unión)
Note: Departmental capitals are in parentheses.

History[change | change source]

The civilization of El Salvador born around 1500 b.C., leaving an evidence that would be the Tazumal Ruins and Chalchuapa Ruins. The first habitants were Pocomanes, Lencas and Pipiles; that stayed in the middle and east zone of El Salvador about eleventh century. The spaniard Andrés Niño led an expeditión from Central América and arrived in Meanguera Island in the Gulf of Fonseca on May 31th, 1522. That was the first salvadoran territory visited by spaniard men.

In june of 1524, Pedro de Alvarado, begun a war of conquest against Cuzcatlán (Land of beautiful things) that was poblated by native tribes of the country. During 17 days of bloody battles so many natives and spaniard men died, including the indigene Atlacatl. Pedro de Alvarado derroted and injured, left the battle and get off to Guatemala, leaveing his brother, Gonzalo de Alvarado to continue the conquest of Cuzcatlán. After this, their cousin, Diego de Alvardo established the San Salvador Ville on april 1525 in a site named La Bermuda, near to Suchitoto City. On 1546, Carlos I from Spain gave to San Salvador the title of City.

During the next years, the country grew under the spaniard control. On 1810 born a feeling of Freedom between the towns of Central América, and in the moment of break the chains of slaveness, in the morning of November 5th, 1811; the priest José Matías Delgado, rang the bells of La Merced Church in San Salvador, calling to the uprising. After to many internal fights, the Declaration of Independece of Central América was signed in Guatemala on september 15th, 1821. That day is the Independence day all around Central America.

References[change | change source]