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Rudolf Steiner

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Rudolf Steiner
Rudolf Steiner c. 1905
Rudolf Joseph Lorenz Steiner

(1861-02-27)27 February 1861[1]
Died30 March 1925(1925-03-30) (aged 64)
Dornach, Switzerland
EducationVienna Institute of Technology
University of Rostock (PhD, 1891)
Era20th-century philosophy
RegionWestern philosophy
Holism in science
Goethean science
Academic advisorsKarl Julius Schröer[2]
Main interests
Metaphysics, epistemology, philosophy of science, esotericism, Christianity
Notable ideas
Anthroposophy, anthroposophical medicine, biodynamic agriculture, eurythmy, social threefolding, spiritual science, Waldorf education, holism in science

Rudolf Steiner (27 February 1861 – 30 March 1925) was an Austrian founder of anthroposophy, esotericist and social reformer. His important work was The Philosophy of Freedom. Under his leadership, Goetheanum was built.

Steiner created his own unique approach to education. It is called Waldorf Education. Waldorf Education uses drawing, acting, and storytelling to help teach the students.


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Rudolph Steiner was born in Kraljevec, Austria in 1861. Steiner studied at the Vienna Technical College, where he educated himself in the philosophies of Goethe and Nietzche.[7]


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  1. Steiner's autobiography gives his date of birth as 27 February 1861. However, there is an undated autobiographical fragment written by Steiner, referred to in a footnote in his autobiography in German (GA 28), that says, "My birth fell on 25 February 1861. Two days later I was baptized." See Christoph Lindenberg, Rudolf Steiner, Rowohlt 1992, ISBN 3-499-50500-2, p. 8. In 2009 new documentation appeared supporting a date of 27 February : see Günter Aschoff, "Rudolf Steiners Geburtstag am 27. Februar 1861 – Neue Dokumente" Archived 28 June 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Das Goetheanum 2009/9, pp. 3ff
  2. Peter Selg (2014), Rudolf Steiner, Life and Work: Volume 1 (1861-1890): Childhood, Youth, and Study Years, SteinerBooks. ISBN 978-1-62148-084-6. Chapter 2
  3. Carlson, Maria (2015). No Religion Higher Than Truth: A History of the Theosophical Movement in Russia, 1875–1922. Princeton University Press. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-69160781-8.
  4. Helmut Zander, Anthroposophie in Deutschland, Göttingen, 2007, ISBN 3-525-55452-4.
  5. Preparata, Guido Giacomo (Fall 2006), "Perishable Money in a Threefold Commonwealth: Rudolf Steiner and the Social Economics of an Anarchist Utopia", Review of Radical Economics, 38 (4): 619–48, doi:10.1177/0486613406293226, S2CID 145257311.
  6. Paddock & Spiegler 2005
  7. "Rudolf Steiner - Great Buildings Online". Retrieved 2 July 2021.