South Vietnam, officially the Republic of Vietnam, was a country that existed from 1955 to 1975 after its fall. It occupied in the southern of what is now the current Vietnam. The country was south of the local Demilitarized Zone, and North Vietnam was to the north of it.
The division of Vietnam took place during the Geneva Conference of 1954. In 1975, the communist forces took over the country and renamed its largest city, Saigon, to Ho Chi Minh City after Ho Chi Minh.