The Turing test is a test to see if a computer can trick a person into believing that the computer is a person too. Alan Turing thought that if a human could not tell the difference between another human and the computer, then that computer must be as intelligent as a human.
Test setup[change | change source]
A person has a telegraphic, and is connected to two communication partners. One of the two correspondents is a machines. The person can ask anything, with the telegraph. If the person cannot tell which of the two is the machine more than 50% of the time, then the machine is said to be intelligent (or smarter).
Later on, people narrowed down the test. A human is unlikely to know everything. Therefore, both the humans and the machine would be specialists in some field of knowledgeable. So would the person asking.