Peenemünde Museum replica of V-2
|Type||single-stage ballistic missile|
|Place of origin||Nazi Germany|
|Used by||German Army|
|Designer||Peenemünde Army Research Center|
|Unit cost||100,000 RM January 1944, 50,000 RM March 1945.|
|Produced||16 March 1942 – 1945 (Germany)|
Some assembled post-war
|Weight||12,500 kg (27,600 lb)|
|Length||14 m (45 ft 11 in)|
|Diameter||1.65 m (5 ft 5 in)|
|Warhead||1,000 kg (2,200 lb); Amatol (explosive weight: 910 kg)|
|320 km (200 mi)|
|Speed||maximum:5,760 km/h (3,580 mph)|
at impact: 2,880 km/h (1,790 mph)
|Gyroscopes to determine direction|
Müller-type pendulous gyroscopic accelerometer for engine cutoff on most production rockets.:225
The V-2 rocket (German: Vergeltungswaffe 2) was the world's first ballistic missile and first human object to fly in space. All modern rockets are based on the V2 design. The first successful launch was from Peenemünde on 3 October, 1942, reaching a height of 192 km.:7 The V2 was designed by Nazis to bomb London, Antwerp and other European cities. It travelled at four times the speed of sound so was impossible to shoot down. The first V-2 used as a weapon exploded in Paris on 8 September 1944, with a second rocket exploding in London later that day.:10 Over 3,000 V-2s were used by the German Wehrmacht against Allied targets in World War II, resulting in the death of an estimated 7,250 military personnel and civilians.
The victors used captured V-2 rockets to start space and missile programs. In the United States they were helped by the team of German rocket scientists from Peenemünde, led by Wernher von Braun, who had surrendered to the US at the end of the war. The first US assembled V-2, made from parts captured in Germany, was launched from White Sands, New Mexico, in April 1946.:21 There were 66 V-2 rocket flights, the last on October 29, 1951.
Development[change | change source]
In the late 1920s, a young Wernher von Braun bought a copy of Hermann Oberth's book, Die Rakete zu den Planetenräumen (The Rocket into Interplanetary Spaces). Starting in 1930, he attended the Technical University of Berlin, where he assisted Oberth in liquid-fueled rocket motor tests. In 1933 he went to work for the Army designing and building rockets. The final, biggest rocket was the A-4, later called V-2.
Production[change | change source]
On 22 Dec. 1942, Hitler signed the order for mass production, when Speer assumed final technical data would be ready by July 1943. However, many issues still remained to be solved even by the autumn of 1943.
References[change | change source]
- Kennedy, Gregory P. (1983). Vengeance Weapon 2: The V-2 Guided Missile. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. pp. 27, 74.
- 10% of the Mittelwerk rockets used a guide beam for cutoff.
- Neufeld, Michael J (1995). The Rocket and the Reich: Peenemünde and the Coming of the Ballistic Missile Era. New York: The Free Press. pp. 158, 160–162, 190.
- Peenemuende, Walter Dornberger, Moewig, Berlin 1985. ISBN 3-8118-4341-9.
- NOVA science program(s). Sputnik Declassified. Public Broadcasting Service (PBS). 2008.
- Furniss, Tim (2001). The History of Space Vehicles. London: Grange Books. ISBN 1-84013-370-8.
- Wernher von Braun#Early life.
- Speer, Albert (1995). Inside the Third Reich. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 496–497. ISBN 9781842127353.
- # (Polish) Michał Wojewódzki, Akcja V-1, V-2, Warsaw 1984, ISBN 83-211-0521-1
Notes[change | change source]
- Oberg, Jim; Sullivan, Dr. Brian R (original draft) (March 1999). "'Space Power Theory". U.S. Air Force Space Command: Government Printing Office. p. 143. Retrieved 28 November 2008. 24,000 fighters could have been produced instead of the inaccurate V-weapons.
- Harris, Arthur T; Cox, Sebastion (1995). Despatch on War Operations: 23rd February, 1942, to 8th May, 1945. p. xliii. ISBN 0-7146-4692-X. Retrieved 4 July 2008.
- King, Benjamin and Timothy J. Kutta (1998). Impact: The History of Germany's V-Weapons in World War II . (Alternately: Impact: An Operational History of Germany's V Weapons in World War II.) Rockville Centre, New York: Sarpedon Publishers, 1998. ISBN 1-885119-51-8, ISBN 1-86227-024-4. Da Capo Press; Reprint edition, 2003: ISBN 0-306-81292-4.
Further reading[change | change source]
- Dungan, Tracy D. (2005). V-2: A Combat History of the First Ballistic Missile. Westholme Publishing. ISBN 1-59416-012-0.
- Huzel, Dieter K. (ca. 1965). Peenemünde to Canaveral. Prentice Hall Inc.
- Piszkiewicz, Dennis (1995). The Nazi Rocketeers: Dreams of Space and Crimes of War. Westport, Conn.: Praeger. ISBN 0-275-95217-7.
Other websites[change | change source]
- The dictionary definition of v-2 at Wiktionary
- Media related to V-2 missiles at Wikimedia Commons
- History of Peenemünde and the discovery of the German missile development by the Allies
- "Chute Saves Rockets Secrets", September 1947, Popular Science article on US use of V-2 for scientific research
- Reconstruction, restoration & refurbishment of a V-2 rocket, spherical panoramas of the process and milestones.