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Green algae on coastal rocks in Taiwan
Scientific classification

Viridiplants (Viridiplantae, 'green plants') are the clade which includes the green algae and land plants.[1][2][3][4][5]

In some classification systems they have been called Plantae, by expanding the traditional plant kingdom (Embryophytes) to include the green algae.

Adl and colleagues, who produced a classification for eukaryotes in 2005, used the name Chloroplastida for this group, reflecting the group having primary chloroplasts with green chlorophyll. They rejected the name Viridiplantae on the grounds that most of the species are not plants, as understood traditionally.[6]

There are more than 350,000 species of Viridiplantae.[7][8][9]

Group structure[change | change source]

The monophyletic Chlorophyta and Charophyta are classified under Viridiplantae. A common classification is:

'Green algae' is not used here because they are definitely not monophyletic. It is just a convenience term for Chlorophyta and Charophyta together.

There are different opinions about the classification. Another opinion is that only the Charophyceae are closely related to land plants, and that arrangement is simplified as:[10]

References[change | change source]

  1. Duvick J, Fu A, Muppirala U; et al. (January 2008). "PlantGDB: a resource for comparative plant genomics". Nucleic Acids Res. 36 (Database issue): D959–65. doi:10.1093/nar/gkm1041. PMC 2238959. PMID 18063570.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  2. "". Retrieved 2009-03-08.
  3. Cocquyt E, Verbruggen H, Leliaert F, Zechman FW, Sabbe K, De Clerck O (2009). "Gain and loss of elongation factor genes in green algae". BMC Evol. Biol. 9: 39. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-9-39. PMC 2652445. PMID 19216746.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  4. Becker B (2007). "Function and evolution of the vacuolar compartment in green algae and land plants (Viridiplantae)". Int. Rev. Cytol. International Review of Cytology. 264: 1–24. doi:10.1016/S0074-7696(07)64001-7. ISBN 9780123742636. PMID 17964920.
  5. Kim E, Graham LE (2008). "EEF2 analysis challenges the monophyly of Archaeplastida and Chromalveolata". PLOS ONE. 3 (7): e2621. Bibcode:2008PLoSO...3.2621K. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002621. PMC 2440802. PMID 18612431.
  6. Adl, Sina M.; et al. (2005), "The new higher level classification of eukaryotes with emphasis on the taxonomy of protists", Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 52 (5): 399–451, doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2005.00053.x, PMID 16248873, S2CID 8060916
  7. Smith SA, Beaulieu JM, Donoghue MJ (2009). "Mega-phylogeny approach for comparative biology: an alternative to supertree and supermatrix approaches". BMC Evol. Biol. 9: 37. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-9-37. PMC 2645364. PMID 19210768.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  8. Odronitz F, Kollmar M (2007). "Drawing the tree of eukaryotic life based on the analysis of 2,269 manually annotated myosins from 328 species". Genome Biol. 8 (9): R196. doi:10.1186/gb-2007-8-9-r196. PMC 2375034. PMID 17877792.
  9. Simon A, Glöckner G, Felder M, Melkonian M, Becker B (2006). "EST analysis of the scaly green flagellate Mesostigma viride (Streptophyta): implications for the evolution of green plants (Viridiplantae)". BMC Plant Biol. 6: 2. doi:10.1186/1471-2229-6-2. PMC 1413533. PMID 16476162.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  10. Adl S.M.; et al. (2012), "The Revised Classification of Eukaryotes", Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 59 (5): 429–514, doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2012.00644.x, PMC 3483872, PMID 23020233