War in Sudan (2023–present)

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War in Sudan
Part of the Sudanese Civil Wars

Military situation as of 10 December 2023
  Controlled by Sudanese Armed Forces and allies
  Controlled by Rapid Support Forces
  Controlled by SPLM-N (al-Hilu)
(Detailed map)
Date15 April 2023 – present (2023-04-15 – present)
(1 year and 5 days)
Location
Status Ongoing
Participants

Sudanese Armed Forces

SLM/A - Tambour (since August 2023)[2]
JEM (since November 2023)[3]
SLM/A - Minni Minnawi (since November 2023)[4]

Alleged state support:
 Egypt[5][6]
 Iran[7]
 Saudi Arabia[7]
 Turkey[7]
 Ukraine[8]

Rapid Support Forces

Alleged state support:
 Chad[9][10]
 Kenya[11]
 United Arab Emirates[10]
Alleged non-state support
Libyan National Army[12]
Wagner Group[13][14]
SPLM-N (al-Hilu faction)[15] (June 2023 – present)
Commanders and leaders

Abdel Fattah al-Burhan
Yasser al-Atta
Shams al-Din Khabbashi
Malik Agar
Mustafa Tambour
Minni Minnawi

Gibril Ibrahim[16]
Hemedti
Abdelrahim Dagalo
Abdel Rahman Jumma
Abdelaziz al-Hilu
Strength
110,000–120,000[17]
Unknown
70,000–150,000[17] Unknown
Casualties and losses
12,000+ killed and 33,000+ injured[18]
5,090,869 internally displaced[19]
1,400,375 refugees

On 15 April 2023, clashes happened across Sudan, especially in and around the capital city Khartoum, as well as Darfur, between rival factions of the current military government. By 19 December, at least 12,000 people died[20] and more than 33,000 people were injured.[21]

The fighting began with attacks on key government sites such as Khartoum where gunfire and explosions were reported. As of 15 April 2023, Leader of the RSF Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo and de facto leader Abdel Fattah al-Burhan claimed to control key government sites such as the general military headquarters, Sudan TV headquarters and the Presidential Palace.

On 17 April, the governments of Kenya, South Sudan and Djibouti stated that they could send their presidents to Sudan to act as mediators. However, Khartoum Airport was closed due to fighting making arrival by air difficult.[22]

Background[change | change source]

The history of conflicts in Sudan has consisted of foreign invasions and resistance, ethnic tensions, religious disputes, and competition over resources.[23][24] In its modern history, two civil wars between the central government and the southern regions led to the deaths of 1.5 million, and a continuing conflict in the western region of Darfur has displaced two million people and killed more than 200,000 people. Since independence in 1956, Sudan has had more than fifteen military coups[25] and it has also been ruled by the military for the majority of the republic's existence, with only brief periods of democratic civilian rule.[26]

Political context[change | change source]

Former president Omar al-Bashir presided over the War in Darfur, a region in the west of the country, and oversaw violence sponsored by the state in the region of Darfur, leading to charges of war crimes and genocide.[27] Around 300,000 people were killed and 2.7 million people were forced to be removed because of the conflict. The intensity of the violence later declined.[28]

Timeline[change | change source]

April[change | change source]

On 15 April, the Rapid Support Forces (RSF) attacked multiple bases used by the Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) including bases in the capital of Khartoum like Khartoum International Airport.[29] The clashes around the state broadcaster Sudan TV, which was eventually captured by RSF forces. Bridges and roads in Khartoum were closed with the RSF claiming that all roads south of Khartoum were closed.[30] On 16 April, the SAF announced the arrests of multiple RSF officers, the rescue of the major general and brigadier and the capture of Merowe Airport.The Sudan Civil Aviation Authority closed the countries airspace.[31] The provider MTN also shut down internet services.[32] Clashes started again on 17 April in Khartoum, Omdurman and Merowe Airport.[33] The SAF claimed control of the Sudan TV headquarters in Khartoum,[34] and the RSF released a video on twitter.[33]

Fighting continued in Khartoum between the SAF and RSF. The SAF accused the RSF of assaulting civilians as well as looting and burning.[35]

Related pages[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. "Malik Agar reveals government-proposed roadmap to end Sudan's war". Sudan Tribune. 6 August 2023. Archived from the original on 5 September 2023. Retrieved 15 August 2023.
  2. "SLM faction joins Sudanese army against RSF in Darfur". Sudan Tribune. 1 August 2023. Archived from the original on 5 September 2023. Retrieved 2 August 2023.
  3. "Sudan civil war: Darfur's Jem rebels join army fight against RSF". 17 November 2023. Archived from the original on 17 November 2023. Retrieved 17 November 2023.
  4. "Key Darfur groups join Sudanese army in its war against RSF paramilitary forces". 16 November 2023. Archived from the original on 18 November 2023. Retrieved 16 November 2023.
  5. "Sudan's RSF says it's ready to cooperate over Egyptian troops". Reuters. 15 April 2023. Archived from the original on 15 April 2023. Retrieved 2023-04-16.
  6. "Sudan's paramilitary shares video they claim shows 'surrendered' Egyptian troops". al-Arabiya. 15 April 2023. Archived from the original on 15 April 2023. Retrieved 15 April 2023.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Khair, Kholood; Akam, Asmahan (7 December 2023). "Sudan's Dangerous Descent Into Warlordism". Time. Retrieved 9 December 2023.
  8. "Exclusive: Ukraine's special services 'likely' behind strikes on Wagner-backed forces in Sudan, a Ukrainian military source says". CNN. 2023-09-19. Archived from the original on 11 October 2023. Retrieved 2023-09-19.
  9. "Key Darfur groups join Sudanese army in its war against RSF paramilitary forces". Sudan Tribune. 17 November 2023. Archived from the original on 18 November 2023. Retrieved 17 November 2023.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Walsh, Declan; Koettl, Christoph; Schmitt, Eric (29 September 2023). "Talking Peace in Sudan, the U.A.E. Secretly Fuels the Fight". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 29 September 2023. Retrieved 30 September 2023.
  11. Eltahir, Nafisa; Holland, Hereward (24 July 2023). "Sudanese general warns Kenya against sending peacekeepers". Reuters. Retrieved 17 December 2023.
  12. "Libyan Militia and Egypt's Military Back Opposite Sides in Sudan Conflict". al-Arabiya. 15 April 2023. Archived from the original on 19 April 2023. Retrieved 15 April 2023.
  13. Elbagir, Nima; Mezzofiore, Gianluca; Qiblawi, Tamara (20 April 2023). "Exclusive: Evidence emerges of Russia's Wagner arming militia leader battling Sudan's army". CNN. Archived from the original on 20 April 2023. Retrieved 20 April 2023. The Russian mercenary group Wagner has been supplying Sudan's Rapid Support Forces (RSF) with missiles to aid their fight against the country's army, Sudanese and regional diplomatic sources have told CNN. The sources said the surface-to-air missiles have significantly buttressed RSF paramilitary fighters and their leader Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo
  14. "Wagner in Sudan: What have Russian mercenaries been up to?". BBC News. 24 April 2023. Archived from the original on 30 April 2023. Retrieved 29 April 2023. Its founder, Yevgeny Prighozin – who has close links to President Vladimir Putin – has said that, "Not a single Wagner PMC [private military company] fighter has been present in Sudan" for over two years. We've found no evidence that Russian mercenaries are currently inside the country. But there is evidence of Wagner's previous activities in Sudan...
  15. "Four killed and village destroyed as RSF attacks SPLM-N base in South Kordofan". Radio Dabanga. 6 December 2023.
  16. "Darfur movements: "We renounce our neutrality"". Sudan War Monitor. 17 November 2023. Archived from the original on 16 November 2023. Retrieved 17 November 2023.
  17. 17.0 17.1 "Sudan: Stalemates rule out one-man victory". DW. 19 April 2023. Archived from the original on 19 April 2023. Retrieved 19 April 2023.
  18. "UN humanitarian office raises alarm over fighting in eastern Sudanese state". www.aa.com.tr. 19 December 2023.
  19. "Regional Sudan Response Situation Update, 21 November 2023". Reliefweb.com. 22 November 2023. Retrieved 22 November 2023.
  20. "Thousands flee as war reaches Sudan's second-largest city". Al Jazeera. 17 December 2023.
  21. "UN humanitarian office raises alarm over fighting in eastern Sudanese state". Anadolu Agansi. Retrieved 2023-12-28.
  22. "Sudan fighting: RSF and army clash in Khartoum for third day". BBC News. 2023-04-16. Retrieved 2023-04-18.
  23. Sawant, Ankush B. (July 1998) [July 1998]. "Ethnic Conflict in Sudan in Historical Perspective". International Studies. 35 (3): 343–363. doi:10.1177/0020881798035003006. ISSN 0020-8817.
  24. Fluehr-Lobban, Carolyn (1990). "Islamization in Sudan: A Critical Assessment". Middle East Journal. 44 (4): 610–623. ISSN 0026-3141.
  25. ISSAfrica.org (2020-07-31). "Sudan, a coup laboratory". ISS Africa. Retrieved 2023-04-25.
  26. "Military Rule No Longer Viable in Sudan: Analyst". VOA. Retrieved 2023-04-25.
  27. Abdelaziz, Khalid; Eltahir, Nafisa; Eltahir, Nafisa (2023-04-15). "Sudan's army chief, paramilitary head ready to de-escalate tensions, mediators say". Reuters. Retrieved 2023-05-09.
  28. "Sudanese general's path to power ran through Darfur". AP NEWS. 2019-05-20. Retrieved 2023-05-24.
  29. "Sudan: Army and RSF battle over key sites, leaving 56 civilians dead". BBC News. 2023-04-15. Retrieved 2023-05-24.
  30. "السودان في ثاني أيام المعارك.. اتساع المواجهات بين الجيش والدعم السريع وفتح ممرات إنسانية لفترة وجيزة". www.aljazeera.net (in Arabic). Retrieved 2023-06-15.
  31. Chris Shieff (2023-04-17). "Military Coup: Sudan Airspace Closed". International Ops 2023 - OPSGROUP. Retrieved 2023-06-15.
  32. Ibrahim, Arwa. "Artillery fire heard in Sudan as three-hour ceasefire ends". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2023-06-15.
  33. 33.0 33.1 Siddiqui, Mersiha Gadzo,Usaid. "Updates: More than 180 people killed in Sudan fighting – UN envoy". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2023-06-15.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  34. "Sudan: 'I haven't slept, I'm terrified,' says Khartoum resident as fighting rages". BBC News. 2023-04-16. Retrieved 2023-06-15.
  35. Adil, Arwa Ibrahim,Hafsa. "Fighting continues in Sudan's capital despite new ceasefire". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2023-06-15.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)