Wikipedia:VideoWiki/Typhoid fever

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Overview[change source]

Typhoid fever, is a bacterial illness, caused via Salmonella typhi.[1]

Salmonella typhi typhoid fever PHIL 2215 lores.jpg


Epidemiology[change source]

The disease, is most common in India.[1]

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Epidemiology - Demographic[change source]

Children, are most commonly affected.[1][2]

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Onset of illness[change source]

Symptoms typically begin, six to thirty days, after exposure to food or water, contaminated with the feces of an infected person.[2]

US Navy 090715-N-9689V-008 Republic of Singapore Navy Maj. Boon Hor Ho examines a local man suffering from abdominal pain during a Pacific Partnership 2009 medical civic action project at Niu'ui Hospital.jpg


Symptoms[change source]

Usually, there is a gradual onset of a high fever over several days;[3] weakness, abdominal pain, constipation, headaches, and mild vomiting.[4][5]

Man suffering from typhoid. Baumgartner, 1929 Wellcome L0074316.jpg


Symptoms 2[change source]

Some people, will develop a skin rash, with rose colored spots.[4]

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Severe Cases and Carriers[change source]

In severe cases, there may be confusion.[5]

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Causes[change source]

The cause, is the bacterium Salmonella Typhi, that grows in the intestines, and blood.[4][5]

Salmonella growing on XLD agar.JPG


Spread[change source]

Typhoid, is spread by eating or drinking food, or water, contaminated with the feces of an infected person.

Drain in Kalibari community (3682826791).jpg


Risk Factor[change source]

Risk factors include, poor sanitation, and poor hygiene.[1]

Poor sanitation situation, Tanzania (3233304175).jpg


Risk Factor 2[change source]

Those who travel in the developing world, are also at risk.[5]

IMF Developing Countries Map 2014.png


Diagnosis[change source]

Because, symptoms are similar to those of many other infectious diseases,[5] diagnosis requires, either culturing the bacteria, or detecting the bacterium's DNA in the blood, stool, or bone marrow.[4][1][6]

US Navy 070905-N-0194K-029 Lt. Paul Graf, a microbiology officer aboard Military Sealift Command hospital ship USNS Comfort (T-AH 20), examines wound cultures in the ship's microbiology laboratory.jpg


Bone Marrow Testing[change source]

Culturing the bacterium can be difficult, so [7] bone marrow testing, is the most accurate.[6]

Bone marrow biopsy.jpg


Prevention[change source]

Typhoid vaccines, have been shown to prevent 40 to 90% of cases, during the first two years,[8] and may have some effect for up to seven years.[1]

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Other Efforts[change source]

Other efforts to prevent the disease include, providing clean drinking water, good sanitation, and handwashing.[4][2]


Infected Persons Quarantine[change source]

Until it has been confirmed that an individual's infection is cleared, the individual, should not prepare food for others.[4]

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Treatment[change source]

The disease, is treated with antibiotics. [1]

Generic amoxicillin-clavulanic acid tablets with 875mg amoxicillin.jpg


Resistance[change source]

Resistance to these antibiotics has been developing, which has made treatment more difficult.[1][9]

Fighting Antibiotic Resistance (8696040154).jpg


References[change source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 Wain, J; Hendriksen, RS; Mikoleit, ML; Keddy, KH; Ochiai, RL (21 March 2015). "Typhoid fever". Lancet. 385 (9973): 1136–45. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(13)62708-7. PMID 25458731.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 "Typhoid vaccines: WHO position paper" (PDF). Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 83 (6): 49–59. February 8, 2008. PMID 18260212. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 2, 2015.
  3. Anna E. Newton (2014). "3 Infectious Diseases Related To Travel". CDC health information for international travel 2014 : the yellow book. ISBN 9780199948499. Archived from the original on 2015-07-02.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 "Typhoid Fever". cdc.gov. May 14, 2013. Archived from the original on 6 June 2016. Retrieved 28 March 2015.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 "Typhoid Fever". cdc.gov. May 14, 2013. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 28 March 2015.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Crump, JA; Mintz, ED (15 January 2010). "Global trends in typhoid and paratyphoid Fever". Clin Infect Dis. 50 (2): 241–6. doi:10.1086/649541. PMC 2798017. PMID 20014951.
  7. Alan J. Magill (2013). Hunter's tropical medicine and emerging infectious diseases (9th ed.). London: Saunders/Elsevier. pp. 568–572. ISBN 9781455740437. Archived from the original on 2017-02-28.
  8. Milligan, R; Paul, M; Richardson, M; Neuberger, A (31 May 2018). "Vaccines for preventing typhoid fever". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 5: CD001261. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001261.pub4. PMID 29851031.
  9. Chatham-Stephens, K; Medalla, F; Hughes, M; Appiah, GD; Aubert, RD; Caidi, H; Angelo, KM; Walker, AT; Hatley, N; Masani, S; Nash, J; Belko, J; Ryan, ET; Mintz, E; Friedman, CR (11 January 2019). "Emergence of Extensively Drug-Resistant Salmonella Typhi Infections Among Travelers to or from Pakistan - United States, 2016-2018". MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 68 (1): 11–13. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6801a3. PMC 6342547. PMID 30629573.