The Balkans is the historic and geographic area, a peninsula in southeastern Europe. The region has a combined area of 550,000 km² and an approximate population of 55 million people. The region takes its name from the Balkan Mountains which run through the centre of Bulgaria into eastern Serbia.
Definitions and boundaries[change | change source]
Balkan Peninsula[change | change source]
The Balkans[change | change source]
The identity of the Balkans is dominated by its geography; historically the area was known as a crossroads of several cultures. It has been a meeting point between the Latin and Greek parts of the Roman Empire. It became an area where Orthodox and Catholic Christianity met, as well as the meeting point between Islam and Christianity. Many Jewish people fled here from Inquisition.
Current common definition[change | change source]
In most of the English-speaking, western world, the countries commonly included in the Balkan region are:
- Albania Albania
- Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Bulgaria Bulgaria
- Croatia Croatia
- Greece Greece
- Serbia Serbia
- Turkey Turkey
- Slovenia Slovenia
Related countries[change | change source]
Other countries not included in the Balkan region that are close to it and/or play or have played an important role in the region's geopolitics, culture and history:
- Austria (see also Austria-Hungary, Assassination in Sarajevo)
- Cyprus (see also Cyprus dispute)
- Hungary (see also Austria-Hungary)
- Italy (see Triest and History of the Venetian Republic)
- Russia (see History of Serbia)
Regional organizations[change | change source]
See also the Black Sea Regional organizations
Population composition by nationality and religion[change | change source]
The region's principal nationalities include:
- Romanians (22 million)
- Greeks (10.5 million)
- Turks (10 million)
- Serbs (8.5 million)
- Bulgarians (6.6 million)
- Albanians (6 million)
- Croats (4.5 million)
- Bosniaks (4.5 million)
- Slovenes (2 million)
- Macedonians (1.3 million)
- Montenegrins (0.3 million)
- others (Roma, ...)
The region's principal religions are (Eastern Orthodox and Catholic) Christianity and Islam. A variety of different traditions of each faith are practiced, with each of the Eastern Orthodox countries having its own national church with its own patriarch.
Eastern Orthodoxy is the principal religion in the following countries:
- Bulgaria (Bulgarian Orthodox Church)
- Greece (Church of Greece)
- Republic of Macedonia (Serbian Orthodox Church and uncanonical Macedonian Orthodox Church)
- Montenegro (Serbian Orthodox Church and uncanonical Montenegrin Orthodox Church)
- Romania (Romanian Orthodox Church)
- Serbia (Serbian Orthodox Church)
Roman Catholicism is the principal religion in the following countries:
Islam is the principal religion in the following countries:
- Bosnia and Herzegovina
The following countries have many religious groups which exceed 10% of the total population:
- Albania: Eastern Orthodoxy, Catholicism.
- Bosnia and Herzegovina: Bosniaks are mostly Muslim, Serbs are mostly Serbian (Eastern) Orthodox and Croats are mostly Catholic.
- Bulgaria: Islam.
- Croatia: Serbs are Orthodox.
- Republic of Macedonia: Albanian population is mostly Muslim.
- Montenegro: Albanians and Bosniacs are Muslims.
- Serbia: Albanians and Bosniacs are mostly Muslim, Hungarians, Slovaks and Croats are mostly Catholic.
For more detailed information and a precise ethnic breakdown see articles about particular states:
- Albania, Demographics of Albania
- Croatia, (4 million Croats, 0.2 million Serbs)
- Bosnia and Herzegovina (2.4 million Bosniacs, 1.7 million Serbs, 0.7 million Croats)
- Bulgaria, Demographics of Bulgaria
- Greece, Demographics of Greece
- Montenegro, (0.3 million Montenegrins, 0.2 million Serbs)
- Republic of Macedonia, Demographics of the Republic of Macedonia
- Serbia, (6.5 million Serbs, 2 million Albanians, 0.3 million Hungarians)
- Turkey, Demographics of Turkey
References[change | change source]
- Banac, Ivo. Historiography of the Countries of Eastern Europe: Yugoslavia, American Historical Review, v 97 #4 (October 1992), 1084-1104.
- Banac, Ivo. The National Question in Yugoslavia: Origins, History, Politics Cornell University Press, .
- Carter, Francis W., ed. An Historical Geography of the Balkans Academic Press, 1977.
- Dvornik, Francis. The Slavs in European History and Civilization Rutgers University Press, 1962.
- Fine, John V. A., Jr. The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century ; The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, .
- John R. Lampe and Marvin R. Jackson; Balkan Economic History, 1550-1950: From Imperial Borderlands to Developing Nations Indiana University Press, 1982
- Jelavich, Barbara. History of the Balkans, 2 vols. Cambridge University Press, .
- Jelavich, Charles, and Jelavich, Barbara, eds. The Balkans in Transition: Essays on the Development of Balkan Life and Politics since the Eighteenth Century University of California Press, 1963.
- Király, Béla K., ed. East Central European Society in the Era of Revolutions, 1775-1856. 1984
- Komlos, John, ed. Economic Development in the Habsburg Monarchy and in the Successor States: Essays 1990.
- Mazower, Mark, The Balkans: A Short History, 2000
- Traian Stoianovich; Balkan Worlds: The First and Last Europe 1994.
Other websites[change | change source]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Balkans|
- South-East Europe Review
- BalkanBaby travel writing, analysis and photos from the Balkans
- Balkan History by Steven W. Sowards
- SEEurope.net - news coverage on Southeastern Europe
- Southeast European Times
- The Centre for South East European Studies
- Balkans region: Oil and Gas Fact Sheet - United States Department of Energy Analysis Brief
- Balkans urged to curb trafficking - BBC
- News from Balkans