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Bosons are different from Fermions, which are particles that make up matter, because they obey Bose-Einstein statistics. (This means that you can put two of them in the same place at the same time).
"Gauge bosons" carry forces. There are three known gauge bosons which are fundamental particles. For example, the photon carries the electromagnetic force. The four gauge bosons are as follows: photons for electromagnetism, gluons for strong force, and W and Z bosons for weak force. Other theoretical gauge bosons are predicted, such as gravitons for gravity. The Higgs boson is another fundamental particle of a type called a scalar boson.
|Particles in Physics|
|Elementary:||Fermions:||Quarks: up – down – strange – charm – bottom – top
Leptons: electron – muon – tau – neutrinos
|Bosons:||Gauge bosons: photon – W and Z bosons – gluons|
|Composite:||Hadrons:||Baryons: proton – neutron – hyperon|
|Mesons: pion – kaon – J/ψ|
|Atomic nuclei – Atoms – Molecules|
|Hypothetical:||Higgs boson – Graviton – Tachyon|