Carbohydrate

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A diagram of the structure of fructose

Carbohydrates are chemical compounds that contain only oxygen, hydrogen and carbon. They are made up of of joined-up sugars with the general formula Cm(H2O)n. They are also known as saccharides.

Certain carbohydrates are an important storage and transport form of energy in most organisms, including plants and animals.

Biochemistry[change | edit source]

There are four types of carbohydrates, named by the number of sugar molecules they contain.

  1. Simple saccharides with one or two sugar molecules
    1. Monosaccharides: single sugar e.g. glucose , fructose
    2. Disaccharides: two saccharides. e.g. sucrose, lactose
  2. Longer chain saccharides:
    1. Oligosaccharides (shortish chains), often linked to amino acids or lipids. They play a special role in cell membranes.
    2. Polysaccharides (long chains) are complex carbohydrates, with linear chains of sugars or branched clusters. Their function is either energy storage (starch, glycogen) or building structures (cellulose, chitin).

Nutrition and foods[change | edit source]

Carbohydrates are the most common source of energy for the human body. Protein builds tissue and cells in the body. Carbohydrates are very good for energy, but, if a person eats more than needed, the extra is changed into fat.

Humans can live without eating carbohydrates because the human body can change proteins into carbohydrates. As long as the human can eat foods with protein, they will be fine. People of some cultures eat food with very little carbohydrates, but they still remain healthy.

Research in the United States and Canada have shown that people get about 40% to 60% of energy from carbohydrates. However, studies suggest that people get at least 55% to 75% of energy from carbohydrates.[1]

Some foods have high levels of carbohydrates including breads, pastas, potato, and cereals.

References[change | edit source]