Christian Heinrich Friedrich Peters
He was born in Schleswig-Holstein, then part of Denmark but later part of Germany, and later studied under Carl Friedrich Gauss. He spoke many languages and spent time in Italy and Ottoman Turkey before going to the United States in 1854.
He was involved in litigation in 1889 with his old assistant Charles A. Borst, and the "Great Star-Catalog Case" Peters v. Borst went before the Supreme Court of New York. The judge sided with Peters, but many astronomers and newspapers sided with Borst. Peters died not long after. After his death, the judgement was ultimately reversed on appeal and a new trial was ordered, but it never took place.