Climates mean the usual condition of the temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, rainfall, and other meteorological elements around a part of the earth's surface for a long time. Climate is different from weather. Weather is the condition of these elements right now, for shorter periods of time that are up to two weeks.
The latitude, ground, and height can change the climate of a location. It is also important to note if there are large bodies of water nearby. Climates are most commonly classified by temperature and precipitation. The most commonly used classification was first made by Wladimir Köppen. The Thornthwaite system, which was used from 1948, not only uses temperature and precipitation information, evapotranspiration too. This is why it is used in studying how many different kinds of animal species there are, and about the things that could happen when climates change. The Bergeron and Spatial Synoptic Classification systems focus more on where the air masses which help make climates come from.
Climates can change after a long time. Recently, the world may be becoming warmer, as is discussed in global warming.
Regions having a subarctic climate (also called boreal climate) are characterized by long, usually very cold winters, and brief, warm summers.
The Mediterranean climate is usually hot and dry in summer, and is cool and wet in winter. An example of a country with a Mediterranean climate is Spain.
- C. W. Thornthwaite, "An Approach Toward a Rational Classification of Climate", Geographical Review, 38:55-94, 1948