The Hadean is the geological eon before the Archaean. It began at the Earth's formation about 4.6 billion years ago, and ended 4 billion years ago. The name "Hadean" comes from Hades, Greek for "Underworld", due to the conditions on the Earth at the time. The geologist Preston Cloud first used the term in 1972. Meteorite bombardment, volcanism and high temperatures were very widespread on the early Earth.
There are no sedimentary rocks from the Hadean at all. The earliest geological objects on Earth are some zircons, dated to about 4,400 million years ago (mya). Oceans would probably have formed as soon as the temperature allowed. It is thought that constant bombardment kept the Earth in a molten state until about the end of the eon.
- the remarkable similarity between the Earth's crust and the Moon's composition,
- the low iron concentration in the Moon's centre, and
- the high angular momentum of the Earth-Moon system.
An explanation for the general lack of Hadean rocks (older than 3800 mya) is the large amount of rocky and icy debris present in the early Solar System. After the eight planets formed, large numbers of leftover protoplanets, asteroids, and comets pursued eccentric orbits throughout our system, bombarding the early Earth and the other planets and moons until approximately 3800 mya. This activity may have prevented any large crustal fragments from forming by literally shattering the early protocontinents. A barrage of particularly large impacts known as the Late Heavy Bombardment represents the climax of this violent era.
References[change | change source]
- "Wilde S.A. Valley J.W. Peck W.H. and Graham C.M. 2001. Evidence from detrital zircons for the existence of continental crust and oceans on the Earth 4.4 billion years ago. Nature 409, 175-178". http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v409/n6817/abs/409175A0.html.
- R. Canup and E. Asphaug (2001). "Origin of the Moon in a giant impact near the end of the Earth's formation". Nature 412: 708–712. doi:10.1038/35089010.
|Precambrian (4.567 gya – 541 mya)|
|In the left column are Eons, bold are Eras, not bold are Periods. gya = billion years ago, mya = million years ago|
|Hadean (4.567 gya – 4 gya)|
|Archaean (4 gya – 2.5 gya)||Eoarchaean (4 gya – 3.6 gya)|
|Proterozoic (4 gya – 2.5 gya)||Palaeoproterozoic (2.5 gya – 1.6 gya) Siderian (2.5 gya – 2.3 gya) Rhyacian (2.3 gya – 2.05 gya) Orosirian (2.05 gya – 1.8 gya) Statherian (1.8 gya – 1.6 gya)|
|Phanerozoic (541 mya – today)|
|In the left column are Eras, bold are Periods, not bold or italics are Epochs, Italics are stages. kya = thousand years ago, mya = million years ago|
|Palaeozoic (541 mya – 252.17 mya)||Cambrian (541 mya – 485.4 mya)|
|Mesozoic (252.17 mya – 66.0 mya)||Triassic (252.17 mya – 201.3 mya) Lower Triassic (252.17 mya – 247.2 mya) Middle Triassic (247.2 mya – 237 mya) Upper Triassic (237 mya – 201.3 mya)|
|Cainozoic (66.0 mya – today)||Palaeogene (66.0 mya – 23.03 mya) Palaeocene (66.0 mya – 56 mya) Eocene (56 mya - 33.9 mya) Oligocene (33.9 mya – 23.03 mya)|
|Source||International Chronostratigraphic Chart 2013. International Commission on Stratigraphy, retrieved 8 April 2013. Divisions of geologic time – major chronostratigraphic and geochronologic units USGS, retrieved 8 April 2013.|