Hyderabad, India

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Hyderabad
Hyderabad montage-2.png

From upper left clockwise Charminar, Birla Mandir, Hussain Sagar, Golconda Fort, Tall Buildings, Chowmahalla Palace
Country  India
State Andhra Pradesh
District Rangareddy
Founded 1592
Commissioner B.Prasada Rao
Planning Agency Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation, Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority
Population 6,809,970
Language(s) Telugu, Urdu, Hindi, English
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Area 7,073 square kilometres (2,731 sq mi)
Codes
Pincode 500 xxx
Telephone +91-40
website www.ghmc.gov.in

Hyderabad (pronounced haɪdərəbɑːd) is the capital of the state of Andhra Pradesh in India. At over 6 million, it has the largest population of any city in the state[1] Hyderabad is an A-1 city under the terms of development priorities.[2] It is also known as city of pearls[3] or city of nizams.[4] The people of Hyderabad are called Hyderabadis.

Hyderabad was founded by Sultan Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah in 1591 AD.It was founded on the banks of river Musi.

The city is home to the Ramoji Film City which has of over 2,000 acres (8.1 km2; 3.1 sq mi) of land. The movie industry here is called Tollywood.[5]

History[change | change source]

Tomb of Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah near Golconda Fort in Hyderabad, India.

Archaeologists have found Iron Age sites in Hyderabad that are 2,500 years old. These sites have been found near Haythnagar and Ramoji Film City,[6] and have burials and tools.[6] In 1143, Kakatiyas ruled Hyderabad from Golconda Fort. Later on, the city fell under Brahmani Sultanate. After the fall of the sultanate, the Qutub Shahi kings ruled Hyderabad. There were seven of them, whose burials are very near to the Golconda Fort.[7][8] Muhammad Quli Qutub Shah was a Qutub Shahi ruler who ordered the construction of the Charminar.[9] Nawab Abdul Hassan Shah who is popularly known as Tanisha was the last Qutub Shahi ruler of Hyderabad before Aurangzeb captured it in 1687.[10] Asaf Jah I was declared the governor of Hyderabad by Aurangzeb. He defeated a rival official to gain control over the country.[11] This is how the Asaf Jahi Dynasty began which ruled Hyderabad till 1948.[12]

Hyderabad became a princely state in 1947. Before that, it was under British rule. The Nizam rulers were willing to rule Hyderabad themselves wanted to join Pakistan. But soon the Nizam had to sign an Instrument of Accession to the Union of India so that Hyderabad becomes a part of India.[13] On November 1, 1956, the province of Hyderabad was divided into Karnataka, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh on the basis of language. So, Hyderabad came into the Telugu speaking community and thus became the capital of Andhra Pradesh.[14]

The city has now developed in fields of IT with four IT colleges including JNTU (Jawaharlal Nehru's Technological Institute).[15] The rise of International Airport and real estate has a major impact on the development of Hyderabad.[16]

Geography[change | change source]

The Mecca Masjid

Hyderabad is situated at the Deccan Plateau, 500 meters above the sea level[17] and most of the area is rocky.[18] Paddy is the main crop grown and other crops include Bengal gram, groundnut, sugar cane and sunflower. Hyderabad was found on the banks of Musi in 1591.r Today that area is known as old city where Mecca Masjid and Hussain Sagar Lake exist.[19] The area has many official buildings and that area is very old.[20] From the recent time, Hyderabad has been merged with Secunderabad. This has led a large, united and populous city with many villages surrounding it.[21]

Climate[change | change source]

Hyderabad has a hot, wet and dry climate. The monsoon or rainy season is from late June until late October.[22][23][24] On average, 32 inches of rain falls on the city each year. The highest temperature ever recorded was 51.5 °C (113.9 °F) on 2 June 1966. The lowest recorded temperature was 1.1 °C (43 °F) on 8 January 1946.[25][26] It is cooler in the evenings and mornings because the city is high above sea level.[26]

Population[change | change source]

The city has a population of over four million.[27] Hindus form the majority[28] while Muslims are 40% of the population. The Muslim community of Hyderabad is largest in Telangana.[29] Muslims are mainly located in and around the old city. Christians are small in number in the city. Famous Churches include those around Abids and Secunderabad like St. Josephs Cathedral.[30]

Culture[change | change source]

Architecture[change | change source]

The Charminar is said to be at the exact place where Quli Qutb Shah prayed for the end to a plague epidemic. The Charminar has long been the icon of Hyderabad. The name means "Four minarets". The towers rise to a height of 48.7 m above the ground. There is a mosque with 45 prayer spaces in the upper storeys of the building. There is also a Hindu temple at the bottom of one of the minarets.

The Golconda Fort was the capital of the Qutb Shahi kingdom. In the 16th century, it was the center of a busy diamond trade. The outer wall of the fort is 10 km around.

Mecca Masjid is one of the oldest mosques in the city and one of the biggest. Muhammed Quli Qutub Shah began building it in 1617. Mughal emperor Aurangzeb finished the building in 1694. The mosque is made of granite. The main hall of the mosque is 75 feet high, 220 feet wide and 180 feet long. Ten thousand worshippers can fit inside at the same time. The entrance arches are made of single slabs of granite. It is believed that Muhammed Quli had bricks made from earth brought from Mecca. He used them the central arch of the mosque. This explains the name of the mosque.

The Chowmahalla Palace was Asaf Jahi dynasty capital. The Nizam entertained official guests and royal visitors here.

Nawab Viqar al-Umra built Falaknuma Palace in 1872. The palace includes sculptures by artists from Florence.

Language[change | change source]

Telugu, Urdu and Hindi are mainly spoken in Hyderabad.[31][32][33] English is also spoken among the educated people. The Telugu spoken here has a few words of Urdu mixed in it. Because Urdu is mixed with Telugu and Farsi, it gave rise to a new dialect, Hyderabadi Urdu. Telugu varies across the state but the language remains the same.[33] Hyderabadi words mostly use hau, nakko...etc.,

References[change | change source]

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  2. Anand, Sarthak (11 September 2009), "Fit to be a capital", The Times of India:Student Edition: 2
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