|Part of a series of articles on
|Beliefs and practices|
|Texts & Laws|
|Types of Islam|
Islam (Arabic: الإسلام (info • help)[note 1]) is an Abrahamic and monotheistic religion whose holy book is called the Qur’an. The religion was founded in the Arabian Peninsula and people who follow Islam are called Muslims. Muslims believe that there is only one God, who is called Allah (الله, al-lāh) in the Arabic language.
During his lifetime and after his death, Muslims collected what he had said and done. Muslims call these accounts Hadith. Muslim scholars collected these Hadith and discussed which Hadith were most likely to be true records of the Sunnah, that is, the words and actions of Muhammad. Muslims see the Sunnah as an important source of guidance, along with the Qur'an. Islam has rules based on the Qur'an and the Sunnah. These laws are called "Sharia". Muslim lawyers have studied Sharia and written down their ideas about how to judge different cases. These ideas about Sharia are called Fiqh.
Meaning of the word "Islam" [change]
The word Islam literally translates in English to "becoming peaceful, acceptance, submission, self-surrender". It comes from the word Salam meaning peace. Muslims believe that the ummah (global community of Muslims) are all brothers and sisters of Islam and should be treated with utmost respect.
Beliefs and practices [change]
The Five Pillars of Islam [change]
According to Islamic Tradition, there are five basic things that Muslims should do. They are called "The Five Pillars of Islam":
- Faith: The Testimony (shahadah in Arabic) is the Muslim belief that there is no god but God himself, and that Muhammad is his messenger.
- Prayer: Muslims pray five times at special times of the day. This is facing the holy city Mecca. Prayer is called salat in Arabic and namaz in Persian, Turkish and Urdu. Shias can pray the afternoon and evening prayers in succession.
- Charity: Muslims who have money must give alms (zakah in Arabic) to help those less fortunate in the world.
- Fasting: Muslims fast (saum in Arabic) during Ramadan, the ninth month of the Islamic year. They do not eat or drink from dawn till sunset for one lunar month. After Ramadan, there is a holiday called Eid al-Fitr (English: Festival of end-fast). Muslims usually have a party with families and friends and go to the mosque in the morning for a special service.
- Pilgrimage (Hajj in Arabic): During the pilgrimage season, many Muslims go to Makkah, the holiest city of Islam, which is in Saudi Arabia. Muslims must make the hajj at least once in their life if they can afford to do so. There is no need if a Muslim does not have the money or health to make the Hajj. At the end of Hajj season, there is a holiday called Eid al-Adha (English: Festival of Sacrifice). Muslims who can afford to do so or who have made the Hajj must buy an animal which they are allowed to eat (Halal), usually a lamb, to sacrifice according to Islamic laws and cook as food or give away to the poor, if they have the money for it. Muslims believe that Ibraham, one of God's earliest messengers, was told by God on the day of Eid al-Adha to sacrifice his son in Jerusalem, Israel. But the angel Jibril congratulated Ibraham's obedience to God and gave him a lamb instead.
The Qur'an is the holy book of Islam. Muslims believe the Qur'an is the sayings of God.
Islam teaches that the Qur'an was revealed by God to Muhammad with the help of an angel called Jibreel. The Qur'an teaches the Muslims to follow the right path by only doing good to please God. Muslims believe God alone decides who goes to Jannah (Heaven) and that doing good in this lifetime will bring them closer to God. The Qur'an has a total of 30 chapters. In each chapter there are many verses. Many Muslims try to memorize the entire Qur'an and ones who do are called a Hafiz or Hafez.
Place of worship [change]
Muslims pray in a place of worship called the mosque. The Muslims place of worship is properly known as a masjid in Arabic. Most masjids have at least one dome, and some have one or more towers. But a masjid does not need to have a dome or tower. Muslims take their shoes off before entering the masjid to pray. Prayer is one of the most important things that a Muslim does.
Call to prayer [change]
The Muslim is called to prayer five times a day. This call to prayer is called Adhan. The muezzin, a man appointed to call to prayer, uses a loudspeaker which carries the voice for the people nearby. This is often done out loud publicly in Muslim countries. Most people are called to prayer in Islamic countries as a daily part of life.
Prayer mat [change]
Sometimes, Muslims pray on a mat, which is called prayer mat, or prayer rug in English. Common Arabic names include sajjāda and namazlık. At the times of prayer, they will determine the direction of Qibla (the ka'bah), roll out their prayer mat, and say their prayers to God.
Islam in the world [change]
In 2009, a study was done in 232 countries and territories. This study found that 23% of the global population or 1.57 billion people are Muslims. Of those, between 75% and 90% are Sunni and between ten and twenty five percent are Shi'a. A small minority belong to other Islamic sects. In approximately fifty countries, the majority of people are Muslims. Arabs account for around twenty percent of all Muslims worldwide.
Most Muslims live in Asia and Africa. Approximately 62% of the world's Muslims live in Asia, with over 683 million followers in Indonesia, Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh. In the Middle East, non-Arab countries such as Turkey and Iran are the largest Muslim-majority countries; in Africa, Egypt and Nigeria have the most populous Muslim communities.
Most estimates indicate that the People's Republic of China has approximately 20 to 30 million Muslims (1.5% to 2% of the population). However, data provided by the San Diego State University's International Population Center to U.S. News & World Report suggests that China has 65.3 million Muslims. Islam is the second largest religion after Christianity in many European countries, and is slowly catching up to that status in the Americas.
Different denominations [change]
Like with other religions, over time different movements have developed in Islam. These movements are based on different interpretations of the scriptures. The following sections list the most common movements.
- Sunni Islam is the largest denomination in Islam making up roughly 75% of adherents. After Muhammad died, the Sunnis believed that Abu Bakr should lead Islam. This is because they believe leaders of Islam should be chosen by the people of the Muslim world. After he died Omar took his place, then Uthman, and then Ali. All of them were companions of the Prophet Muhammad and lived in Medina. Sunni beliefs are typically based on the Qur'an and the Kutub al-Sittah.
- The Shia are the second largest denomination in Islam.They believe that just as only God can appoint a prophet, he can appoint a second leader after the prophet. Shi'a Muslims believe that God chose Ali as the leader after Prophet Muhammad. They say that before he died, Muhammad chose Ali as his replacement. About 10% of Muslims in the world are Shi'a which means that there are about 120 million world wide. Although Shi'a is not the biggest movement in Islam, Shi'a Muslims have the largest population in Iran (90%), Azerbaijan (82%), Bahrain (92%), Iraq (70%), Lebanon (29%), Pakistan (20%), Yemen (30%). They mark the largest peaceful gathering every year in Karbala, which is located in Iraq. An estimated 17 to 18 million people visited the shrine of Imam Hussein in Karbala, Iraq during Arba'een in 2013, an estimated 25 million people were there over a spread of a few days.
- The Sufi are a branch in Islam that focuses more on the spiritual and mystic elements of Islam. Sufis usually conclude their prayers with dhikr recitations.
- The Quraniyoon are a denomination that generally rejects the authoratitive nature of the hadiths. Such Muslims, also known as Quranists and Ahle Quran, believe that the Quran is the sole source of guidance. The Quraniyoon do not necessarily reject the authenticity of hadiths, but do criticize the hadith claiming that such religious literature is not endorsed by the Quran, with some claiming that text collections are an innovative bid'ah.
- Ibadis are Muslims who originated from the Kharijites. Ibadis today have reformed beliefs from original Kharijites.
- Ahmadiyyas are Muslims who follow Mirza Ghulam Ahmed who they consider to be the mahdi. They are divided into two subgroups; the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community and the Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement.
- The Nation of Islam is a denomination in Islam primarily geared towards African Americans.
- The Five-Percent Nation, a denomination predominantly consisting of African-American, also known as Nation of Gods and Earths.
Some of the first people who criticised Islam in writing were Christians, like John of Damascus (born about 676). In the medieval period, some Arab philosophers like the poet Al-Ma'arri also criticised Islam. The Jewish philosopher Maimonides compared Islamic views of morality to the Jewish approach that he himself believed in. He believed that Islam was a copy of the Jewish and Christian religions with a few minor changes. He thought these changes were made to suit Muhammad's desire for fame and his quest to start a new religion. He thought Muhammad wanted to be seen as equal to the likes of Moses and Jesus. Medieval Christian writers thought that Islamic beliefs were not valid. They tried to show Muhammad was possessed by Satan. In the 19th century, the Orientalist (eastern countries and beliefs) scholar William Muir wrote harshly about the Qur'an.
In modern times, critics also say that Islam does not tolerate the view that parts of Islamic law may be too harsh. Other critics see Muhammad's personal life negatively. Still others question how authentic the Qur'an is and if it can impose moral guidelines. These reports also say that women and animals may be treated badly by Islamic law and practice.
Some people have responded to these forms of criticism. Montgomery Watt and Norman Daniel say that some of the criticisms are the product of old myths and prejudice,. Carl Ernst writes that Islamophobia has played a part in establishing what he calls "myths".
Other pages [change]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Islam|
- Ernst, Carl (2004). Following Muhammad: Rethinking Islam in the Contemporary World. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-5577-4.
- Novak, David (February 1999). "The Mind of Maimonides". First Things.
- Sahas, Daniel J. (1997). John of Damascus on Islam: The Heresy of the Ishmaelites. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 978-90-04-03495-2.
- Seibert, Robert F. (1994). "Review: Islam and the West: The Making of an Image (Norman Daniel)". Review of Religious Research 36 (1).
- Warraq, Ibn (2000). The Quest for Historical Muhammad. Prometheus. ISBN 978-1-57392-787-1.
- Warraq, Ibn (2003). Leaving Islam: Apostates Speak Out. Prometheus. ISBN 1-59102-068-9.
- Watt, W. Montgomery (1974). Muhammad: Prophet and Statesman (New ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-881078-4.
- The Shia Imami Ismaili Muslims: A Short Introduction - Page 28, Jimmy R. Davis - 2007
- Miller (2009), pp.4,11
- Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim Population: Main Page, Pew Research Center, http://pewforum.org/docs/?DocID=450
- Encyclopædia Britannica, Sunnite
- Miller (2009), p.11
- "Islam: An Overview in Oxford Islamic Studies Online". Oxfordislamicstudies.com. 2008-05-06. http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t125/e1087. Retrieved 2010-05-16.
- Secrets of Islam – U.S. News & World Report. Information provided by the International Population Center, Department of Geography, San Diego State University (2005).
- Miller (2009), pp.15,17
- "Number of Muslim by country". nationmaster.com. http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/rel_isl_num_of_mus-religion-islam-number-of-muslim. Retrieved 2007-05-30.
- "CIA – The World Factbook – China". Cia.gov. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ch.html. Retrieved 2009-06-15.
- "China (includes Hong Kong, Macau, and Tibet)". State.gov. http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2006/71338.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-15.
- "NW China region eyes global Muslim market". China Daily. 2008-07-09. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/bizchina/2008-07/09/content_6831389.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-14.
- "Muslim Media Network". Muslim Media Network. 2008-03-24. http://muslimmedianetwork.com/mmn/?p=1922. Retrieved 2009-07-14.
- Secrets of Islam, U.S. News & World Report. Information provided by the International Population Center, Department of Geography, San Diego State University.
"Major Religions of the World Ranked by Number of Adherents". Adherents.com. http://www.adherents.com/Religions_By_Adherents.html. Retrieved 2007-01-09.
- "Muslims in Europe: Country guide". BBC News (BBC). 2005-12-23. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/4385768.stm. Retrieved 2006-09-28.
- "Religion In Britain". National Statistics. Office for National Statistics. 2003-02-13. http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=293. Retrieved 2006-08-27.
- From the article on Sunni Islam in Oxford Islamic Studies Online
- Historical Dictionary of Islamic Fundamentalism - Page 22, Mathieu Guidère - 2012
- Sahas (1997), pp.76-80
- Warraq (2003), p.67
- Bostom, Andrew (July 21, 2003). "Islamic Apostates' Tales - A Review of Leaving Islam by Ibn Warraq". FrontPageMag. http://www.frontpagemag.com/Articles/ReadArticle.asp?ID=9000.
- Novak (February 1999)
- "Mohammed and Mohammedanism", Catholic Encyclopedia
- Toby Lester (January 1999). "What Is the Koran?". The Atlantic Monthly. http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/199901/koran.
- Warraq (2000), p. 103
- Ibn Warraq (2002-01-12). "Virgins? What virgins?". Special Report: Religion in the UK (The Guardian). http://www.guardian.co.uk/saturday_review/story/0,3605,631332,00.html.
- Timothy Garton Ash (10-05-2006). "Islam in Europe". The New York Review of Books. http://www.nybooks.com/articles/19371.
- Watt (1974), p.231
- Seibert (1994), pp.88-89
- Ernst (2004), p.11
- There are ten pronunciations of Islam in English. Pronunciations is different in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, if the s is how to say: /z/ or /s/, and if the a is pronounced /ɑː/ as in father, /æ/ as in cat, or (when the stress is on the i) /ə/ as in the a of sofa (Merriam Webster). The most common are how to say: /ˈɪzləm, ˈɪsləm, ɪzˈlɑːm, ɪsˈlɑːm/ (Oxford English Dictionary, Random House) and how to say: /ˈɪzlɑːm, ˈɪslɑːm/ (American Heritage Dictionary).
Other websites [change]
- A Simple site to Learn Islam
- Saudi Ministry of Islamic Affairs
- Islam house website with more than 70 languages
- The International Commission on Scientific Signs in the Qur'an and the Sunnah