Egypt

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Arab Republic of Egypt
جمهورية مصر العربية
Ǧumhūriyyat Maṣr al-ʿArabiyyah
Anthem: 

"Bilady, Bilady, Bilady"
"My country, my country, my country"
Capital
and largest city
Cairo
30°2′N 31°13′E / 30.033°N 31.217°E / 30.033; 31.217
Official languages Arabic[a]
Demonym Egyptian
Government Provisional government
 -  President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi
 -  Acting Prime Minister Ibrahim Mahlab
Legislature Parliament (dissolved)
 -  Upper house Shura Council (dissolved)
 -  Lower house House of Representatives (dissolved)
Establishment
 -  Unification of Upper
and Lower Egypt
[1][2]
c. 3200 BC 
 -  Muhammad Ali Dynasty inaugurated 9 July 1805[3] 
 -  Independence from
the United Kingdom
28 February 1922 
 -  Republican regime 18 June 1953 
 -  Revolution Day 25 January 2011 
 -  Current Constitution 18 January 2014 
Area
 -  Total 1,002,450 km2 (30th)
387,048 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 0.632
Population
 -  2011 estimate 81,015,887[4] (16th)
 -  2006 census 76,699,427 (total)[5]
incl. 3,901,396 abroad
 -  Density Real density:[c]
2,755.2/km2 (38th)
7,136/sq mi
Arithmetic density:
76.3/km2 (126th)
197.5/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2011 estimate
 -  Total $508.265 billion[6]
 -  Per capita $6,361[6]
GDP (nominal) 2011 estimate
 -  Total $231.111 billion[6]
 -  Per capita $2,892[6]
Gini (1999–00) 34.5
medium
HDI (2010) Increase 0.620[7]
medium · 101st
Currency Egyptian pound (EGP)
Time zone EET (UTC+2 (No DST Since 2011))
Drives on the right
Calling code +20
Internet TLD .eg, مصر.
a.^  Literary Arabic is the sole official language. Egyptian Arabic is the national spoken language. Other dialects and minority languages are used regionally.
b.^  De facto interim head of state.[8][9]
c.^  Densities are based on 2006 population figures. The gap between arithmetic and real densities is due to the fact that 98% of Egyptians live on 3% of the territory.[10]

Egypt is a country in northeast Africa. Its capital city is Cairo. Egypt is famous for its very old monuments, such as the Pyramids and the Sphinx.

History[change | change source]

Egypt has been an independent country since 1922. It is a member of the United Nations and the Arab League. It was a republic from 1952 after the revolution of 1952 by the leader Gamal Abdel Nasser.

Geography[change | change source]

Egypt is a large country, but a large portion of it is desert. Most people live in areas around the coast of the Mediterranean Sea and along the Nile River. This includes the cities of Cairo, Alexandria, Aswan, and Port Said. Not many people live in the desert. Today, Egypt has about 85 million people.

Egypt is divided into 29 areas, called Governorates of Egypt.

Politics[change | change source]

The Egyptian Parliament sits in Cairo and makes laws for the whole country. The country is currently run by the interim president Adly Mansour who was placed as an interim president for the current transition period of Egypt.[11] and Abd El-Fatah El-Sisi becomes the new president after last elections that happened at May 2014.

Revolution[change | change source]

In January 2011, thousands of protesters gathered in Cairo. They wanted Hosni Mubarak to leave office. He had been the President for almost 30 years. On February 11, 2011, Vice President Omar Suleiman made an announcement. He said that Mubarak agreed to leave office. Suleiman also said that Mubarak directed the Supreme Council of the armed forces would run the country.[12]

Demographics[change | change source]

Religion[change | change source]

Today, the people of Egypt are mostly Sunni Muslims. There are still many Christians in Egypt today. Many of these belong to the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria.

Languages[change | change source]

The official language in Egypt is Arabic. A high percentage of the population, however, speaks English. French and German are also taught in Egypt as second language.

Money[change | change source]

Egypt is classified to 3 classes Poor , Middle Class & The Rich People Class. Middle Class is the most common and the highest in the population in Egypt.

Famous people[change | change source]

Many famous people are from Egypt. Some of these include Omar Sharif, who was an international actor, Boutros Boutros-Ghali, who was the first person from Africa to lead the United Nations, and four Nobel Prize winners: Anwar Sadat, who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1978, Naguib Mahfouz, who won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1988, Ahmed Zewail, who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1999, and Mohamed ElBaradei, who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 2005. Egypt's climate is good in winter and very hot in summer, depending on the time.

Governorates[change | change source]

Egypt is divided into 27 governorates. The governorates are divided into regions. The regions have towns and villages. Each governorate has a capital. Sometimes capital has the same name as the governorate.

Governorate Capital Location
Alexandria Alexandria Northern
Aswan Aswan Upper
Asyut Asyut Upper
Beheira Damanhur Lower
Beni Suef Beni Suef Upper
Cairo Cairo Middle
Dakahlia Mansura Lower
Damietta Damietta Lower
Faiyum Faiyum Upper
Gharbia Tanta Lower
Giza Giza Upper
Ismailia Ismailia Canal
Kafr el-Sheikh Kafr el-Sheikh Lower
Luxor Luxor Upper
Governorate Capital Location
Matruh Mersa Matruh Western
Minya Minya Upper
Monufia Shibin el-Kom Lower
New Valley Kharga Western
North Sinai Arish Sinai
Port Said Port Said Canal
Qalyubia Banha Lower
Qena Qena Upper
Red Sea Hurghada Eastern
Sharqia Zagazig Upper
Sohag Sohag Upper
South Sinai el-Tor Sinai
Suez Suez Canal

Culture[change | change source]

Egypt is a country with an immense cultural mix. Mostly, you'll find traditions that remain from the time of Pharaohs. The advantages that you'll find when you compare areas of Egypt with other Middle Eastern countries is what makes Egypt seem more advanced than others.

Egyptians form a society of a mixture standards and different religious rules whether it's Islam or Christianity. Each member of the families is responsible for the integrity, respect and for the behavior of other family members. Family members are quite close to each other in almost every situation creating a safer environment than in the West.

Tourism[change | change source]

Pyramid of Menkaure

Tourism is one of the most important national incomes in Egypt. In 2008, about 12 million tourists visited Egypt providing nearly 12$ billion of national income to Egypt. Tourism is very related to the economy of the country as a whole.[13]

Giza Necropolis is one of Egypt's iconic sites. It's a very popular destination for tourists to visit. It's very popularized for its containment of the Great Pyramid of Giza which is considered one of the Seven Wonders of the World.

Many tourists love to visit Egypt for its historical, cultural, religious and entertainment experience of tourism.

Transport[change | change source]

There are many transport ways in Egypt along the Nile.

Metro[change | change source]

Cairo Metro, Sadat Station

Cairo Metro is one of the most important projects in Egypt. It consists of 3 lines. Metro is the most preferable transport in Egypt due to persistent major traffic jams in the streets of Cairo.[14][15]

A Metro line 4 is right now being developed and expected to be active in future reaching New Cairo District.[16]

Air Transport[change | change source]

Egypt is a country that really care about Air Transport. It established EgyptAir in 1932. The airline is based on Cairo International Airport and owned by the government.

References[change | change source]

  1. "Background Note: Egypt". United States Department of State Bureau of Near Eastern Affairs. 10 November 2010. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5309.htm. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
  2. Goldschmidt, Arthur (1988). Modern Egypt: The Formation of a Nation-State. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-86531-182-4 . http://books.google.com/books?id=YmZyAAAAMAAJ&q=state. "Among the peoples of the ancient Near East, only the Egyptians have stayed where they were and remained what they were, although they have changed their language once and their religion twice. In a sense, they constitute the world's oldest nation. For most of their history, Egypt has been a state, but only in recent years has it been truly a nation-state, with a government claiming the allegiance of its subjects on the basis of a common identity."
  3. Pierre Crabitès (1935). Ibrahim of Egypt. Routledge. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-415-81121-7 . http://books.google.com/books?id=1NbCRckI3EoC&pg=PA1. Retrieved 20 February 2014. "... on July 9, 1805, Constantinople conferred upon Muhammad Ali the pashalik of Cairo ..."
  4. "Population Clock". Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics. 27 April 2013. http://www.capmas.gov.eg/?lang=2. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
  5. "Indicators From Final Results of 2006 Pop. Census Compared With 1996 Census" (PDF). Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics. http://www.msrintranet.capmas.gov.eg/ows-img2/htms/pdf/finalpop/5,7.pdf. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 "Egypt". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2011/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=82&pr.y=11&sy=2009&ey=2012&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=469&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC&grp=0&a=. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
  7. "Human Development Report 2010". United Nations. 2010. http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2010_EN_Table1.pdf. Retrieved 5 November 2010.
  8. Hope, Christopher; Swinford, Steven (15 February 2011). "WikiLeaks: Egypt's new man at the top 'was against reform'". The Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/wikileaks/8326225/WikiLeaks-Egypts-new-man-at-the-top-was-against-reform.html. Retrieved 5 March 2011.
  9. "The Supreme Council of the Armed Forces: Constitutional Proclamation". Egypt State Information Service. 13 February 2011. http://www.sis.gov.eg/En/Story.aspx?sid=53709. Retrieved 5 March 2011. "The Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces shall represent it internally and externally."
  10. de Blij, H. J.; Murphy, Alexander B.; Fouberg, Erin H. (2006). Human Geography: People, Place, and Culture (8th ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons. p. 38. ISBN 9780471679516 .
  11. Ahram: Egypt's new interim president.
  12. Namatalla, Ahmed A; Mariam Fam and Zainab Fattah (2011-02-11). "Mubarak Resigns as Egyptian President". Bloomberg. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-02-11/mubarak-leaves-presidency-hands-power-to-egypt-s-military-suleiman-says.html. Retrieved 2011-02-11.
  13. "Egypt tourism numbers to fall less than feared", Reuters Africa. (2009-10-20)
  14. "Underground, Everything That Life Above Is Not", NY Times. Retrieved May 3, 2012
  15. "Egypt's traffic: The problem grinds on", AhramOnline. Retrieved 8 Oct 2012
  16. "Cairo Metro, Egypt", Railway Technology.

Other websites[change | change source]