Nobel Prize

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Every year, the Nobel Prizes (Swedish: Nobelpriset) are given to people and institutions around the world. These prizes are for the study of science and for world peace. The science prizes include Literature, Science, and Medicine. The most important prize is for Peace. The Nobel Prize was started by Alfred Nobel. His 1895 testament (or will) gave money for the Prizes. The Nobel Foundation now controls the money. The Foundation asks different committees or academies to decide who receives the prizes. For many people, a Nobel Prize is a very great honor.[1] People who receive a Nobel Prize are called "Nobel laureates".

Each prize winner gets a medal, a diploma and a sum of money.[2] In 1901, the winners of the first Nobel Prizes were given 150,782 SEK. This is same as 7,731,004 SEK in December 2007. In 2008, the winners were awarded a prizes of 10,000,000 SEK.[3] The awards are presented in Stockholm, Sweden, in a ceremony on December 10. This day is the anniversary of Nobel's death.[4]

Prize categories and winners[change | change source]

These are the committees and institutions who decide which people receive a Nobel Prize:

The Nobel Prize in Economics was not a part of Nobel's will. It was started in 1969 by Sveriges Riksbank, the Bank of Sweden. The bank donated money to the Nobel Foundation for the Economics Prize in 1968. The Economics Studies Prize is in the memory of Alfred Nobel. It is awarded each year with the other Nobel prizes.

Interesting Nobel laureates[change | change source]

Some people have received more than one Nobel Prize. They are:[5]

As a group, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) has received the Nobel Peace Prize three times: in 1917, 1944, and 1963. The first two prizes were given the group's work during the world wars. The third was awarded at the year of its 100-Year Anniversary.

The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) received the Peace Prize in 1954 and 1981.

Some families have received multiple laureates.[5]

References and notes[change | change source]

  1. Nobel Prizes cannot be awarded posthumously (to people who are no longer living).
  2. "The Nobel Prize". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/. Retrieved 27 November 2008.
  3. "The Nobel Prize Amounts". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 31 July 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080731233358/http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/amounts.html. Retrieved 27 November 2008.
  4. "The Nobel Prize Award Ceremonies". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 22 August 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080822184717/http://nobelprize.org/award_ceremonies/. Retrieved 27 November 2008.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Nobel Prize facts, nobelprize.org, accessed 18 October 2007.
  6. See "Preface", "The Peace Prize..." and "Linus Pauling: awards, honors, and medals", Linus Pauling and the nature of the chemical bond: a documentary history; Linus Pauling and the international peace movement; Ava Helen and Linus Pauling papers: Special Collections, the Valley Library, Oregon State University, accessed 13 December 2007.
  7. They discovered the way ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) are synthesized in the body. Physiology or Medicine prize 1959, nobelprize.org, accessed 14 January 2008
  8. Roger Kornberg studied the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription. Chemistry prize 2006, nobelprize.org, accessed 14 January 2008

Other websites[change | change source]

Media related to Nobel Prize at Wikimedia Commons